Remote work isn’t only blindly following trends, nevertheless also a matter of profit. Of course, such a format saves employees time and money associated with the repair of the office and allows you to develop a more green business.
We all have a home in difficult occasions, so it is very important to company business owners to learn to work with different job formats. In this post, we will reveal the main principles of virtual cooperation.
What is centralized cooperation?
Assistance within the system of achieving a specific goal, solving certain tasks, or maybe a long-term collaboration involves the pooling and coordination of efforts, assets, equal participation of each party, and joint responsibility with respect to the benefits of actions. One of the crucial elements of building a quality discussion between companions is effective connection – to be able to listen and hear, exchange information, share jointly arranged key sales messages. If we speak about online collaboration, in this case, the specially designed utility bills, like Software takes place. You can better understand the fact of collaboration by showcasing its key features:
joint job: a staff is certainly not the total of distinct parts, yet a single complete – some structured group, each member which complements the other;
considerate positioning of each and every of their participants. That is, each member of this group recognizes the volume of the situation and is conscious of the strategic goals, incorporates a number of duties assigned to him, and is responsible for the implementation of each and every of them;
communication: in the team, each participant is available and honest with others, ready to fix conflicts in the stage of their origin;
autonomy: each workforce is a great autonomous section of the structure of any organization. It has a quantity of well-thought-out solutions to interact with supervision and other teams;
synergy: the effect of team-work qualitatively is higher than the effect of individual job.
There are the principles of centralized cooperation:
basic and essential goals of each of the members;
clear overall performance requirements;
How to plan remote work in the Online board meeting software effectively?
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1Department of International Trade, Cankiri Karatekin University, Uluyazi, 18000 Cankiri, Turkey
2Department of Industrial Engineering, Gazi University, 06570 Maltepe, Ankara, Turkey
Received 10 October 2015; accepted 26 November 2016
Abstract. The effectiveness of websites has an impact on the representation of an SME and can have an effect on foreign trade. Thus, developing a reliable and robust model to assess the effectiveness of SME websites is important for researchers and practitioners. The aim of the study is to propose an SME website efficiency evaluation methodology from an international trade perspective. Determining the effectiveness of websites is a multi-dimensional decision-making problem that encompasses the assessment of information quality, system quality, and service quality. The criteria and sub-criteria affecting website effectiveness were determined through literature research and expert panel assistance. AHP method was utilized to determine the relative weights of the evaluation criteria in the study. Then, fuzzy linguistic variables were adopted to rank the websites of SMEs engaged in foreign trade. The proposed evaluation model identifies key factors regarding the criteria and sub-criteria of website effectiveness. The model can provide a helpful reference in designing useful websites, which are an important task for SMEs involved in international trade.
Keywords: SME websites, international trade, website evaluation, multi-criteria decision-making,analysis, fuzzy linguistic scale, AHP.
JEL Classification: C63, F10, L21, M21.
Competing in an international environment, promoting the goods and services of a company, reaching more clients globally to make more revenues, and building a more sustainable concern require a significant amount of funds and experience. Many of the SMEs experience difficulties in attaining benefits of foreign trade as they lack necessary resources such as capital and skills. Presentation of a company and the goods or services offered is crucial for access to foreign markets. Improved access to international markets and promotion of products in foreign markets encourage the firms to export and increase their success in new markets (Lileeva, Trefler 2010; Akman 2016). Katsikeas et al. (1997) show that the export market
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
1064 E. Akman, M. Dagdeviren. Discovering what makes an SME website good for international trade
accessibility is a more significant factor in export success among SMEs compared to larger firms. Entrance to new markets is facilitated only by communication between the trading parties, which incurs additional costs. Fink et al. (2005) attested that communication costs have a significant impact on international trade, and the decrease in communication costs is one of the causes of World trade growth. The internet offers fast, borderless, and cheaper opportunities for representing products and services. This advantage lowers barriers to access international markets for SMEs. Contractor et al. (2005) further argued that the usage of the internet by corporations alleviates inadequacies in international business experience. The internet is considered a common marketing ground for trading companies. It can serve as a medium to overcome the disadvantages of SMEs in promoting their products in foreign markets. International networking is one of the determining factors of export success. The websites, official representatives of corporations, are likely to have a central function in the international networking of a company (Glavas, Mathews 2014). Nearly 50% of the SMEs consider official websites as a facilitator of network building (Madill, Neilson 2010). However, the effectiveness of websites and the success of their presentation of the products or offers are key elements in achieving this function.
The invention of the internet has changed many aspects of life by lowering limitations to access of information and the ease of communication on the World Wide Web. The effects of this change have been obvious in business and international trade. The rapid spread of the internet lowered the barriers to international trade and significantly expanded the export volume of the World (Freund, Weinhold 2004). Export information availability, international network building, and marketing through websites facilitate exports and gradually increase the export market shares of a corporation (Bianchi, Mathews 2016). Utilizing websites to provide better communication functions increase exporters’ performance in foreign markets (Wang et al., 2011). Usage of the internet and websites as a marketing tool contributes to the internationalization and export success of SMEs in both production and service industries (Mathews et al., 2012; Moini, Tesar, 2005; Choi, 2010). On the other hand, the existing customers also demand an effective website. The influence of the current customers’ pressure on the adoption and effectiveness of a website is higher than other factors such as competitor pressure or the motivation of reaching new customers (Beckinsale et al. 2006). Goedhuys and Sleuwaegen (2009) indicate that the SMEs actively interacting with their clients through their websites achieve higher market share and growth rates than their counterparts. Therefore, designing an effective website is not only a catalyst for engaging in foreign markets and increasing their sales but also an important concern for sustaining SMEs in today’s business atmosphere. The empirical studies show that SMEs are deriving benefits from the use of websites. This trend enabled SMEs in both emerging and developed countries to initiate trade beyond their local borders in the past decade.
The Internet as a virtual platform is an advantage for SMEs with no or lower international networks and helps them in engaging in foreign trade. However, ineffective websites are likely to turn this advantage into a disadvantage. Website effectiveness is one of the important aspects of international networking and, thus, international trade for SMEs. Website effectiveness in different fields has been studied extensively in the literature. However, the problem of website effectiveness of SMEs in the realms of foreign trade is an issue that hasn’t been
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addressed adequately. We were motivated by the lack of studies focusing on the evaluation of the website effectiveness of SMEs from the perspective of the users in international trade. The focus of our research is a distinguishing feature, and thus, the study makes a significant contribution to the body of literature. The proposed model utilizes multi-criteria decision-making models (MCDM) for evaluating and ranking the effectiveness of SME websites. The results of the research can help SMEs engaged in foreign trade to assess their website effectiveness and develop policies for website enhancement. The findings of the study have the potential to form a basis for further studies on the relation of website efficiency and export performance of SMEs.
AHP is one of the most useful and popular methodologies in multi-criteria decision-making problems (Mardani et al., 2015). An MCDM, Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP), is utilized to evaluate SME websites in this study. The nature of the website evaluation criteria is qualitative, with sometimes conflicting assessments of experts. AHP enables to combine a group consensus by weighing the criteria and sub-criteria to select the best suitable criteria (Akincilar, Dagdeviren 2014). The number of respondents, all foreign trade experts, to our questionnaire is forty-nine. Therefore, we consider AHP as an ideal method for the study.
The studies of Ho (2008), Zavadskas and Turskis (2011), Akkaya et al. (2015), Tyagi (2016), and Veisi et al. (2016) show that AHP is an MCDM tool that has been used in many areas ranging from economics, education, commerce, manufacturing, and politics to finance, engineering, military, environment, and agriculture. Akincilar and Dagdeviren (2014), Lee and Kozar (2006), Lin (2010), Chen et al. (2012), and Yu et al. (2011) are some website evaluation studies employing the AHP method.
This paper is divided into five sections. After describing the problem in this section, a literature review on website evaluation followed. The second section is dedicated to introducing the AHP methodology. The empirical analysis, results, and discussion are presented in the third section. Conclusions and future research take part in the last Section.
1. Literature review
Participants of international trade generally start with preliminary research usually carried on the internet in this day. Thus, official websites are not only an information source for current customers but also another path for gaining new customers. Websites are open exhibitions with no access limitations of time, location, and borders. Effective websites are likely to produce more successful results in exploiting the opportunities of the internet. Samiee (1998), one of the earlier studies on the role of websites on export performance, puts forth that having a corporate website does not present a comparative advantage in export markets over competitors. Actually, making better use of the opportunities websites offer and increasing website effectiveness through skills and experience does provide higher competitive power in export markets. Assessing the enterprise’s own website and the websites of competitors’ websites are important in promoting the competitiveness level and achieving competitive advantage (Li 2015). The design and function of the website of an organization is an important factor in communicating with customers. Unfortunately, many corporations, particularly SMEs, fail to realize the importance of online presence and its impact on the
1066 E. Akman, M. Dagdeviren. Discovering what makes an SME website good for international trade
customers (Cheek et al. 2016). Sinkovics and Penz (2006) indicate that consumers as decision-makers value the content and design of websites serving their essential objectives. Corporations need to develop methodologies, procedures, and practices to achieve this goal.
The business professionals and researchers are focused on website evaluation and success factors to support the overall improvement of websites. Some of the recent examples of the studies are given as follows: the evaluation of C2C e-commerce websites (Li 2015; Masudin, Sapturo 2016), the evaluation of group-buying websites (Chen et al. 2012), library websites (Xiaolan et al. 2013), hotel websites (Ting et al. 2013; Akincilar, Dagdeviren 2014), bank websites (Waite et al. 2011; Kaya, Kahraman 2011; Ecer 2014), trading websites (Meng, Wu 2014), SME websites (Sanders, Galloway 2013; Karmokar, Singh 2012; Sinkovics, Penz 2006; Stockdale et al. 2005; Houghton, Winklhofer 2004), corporate websites for export marketing (Dou, Tan 2002), B2C e-business websites (Kang et al. 2016; Lee, Kozar 2006; Yu et al. 2011), course websites (Lin 2010) and business school websites (Kincl, Štrach 2012).
Sinkovics and Penz (2006) conducted research using a Likert scale questionnaire to assess the factors impacting SME website empowerment. They suggested five dimensions with the assistance of experts panel; general aspects, information, transaction, relationship, and target audience. Their findings indicate interactivity and information are the most important aspects of website effectiveness. Stockdale et al. (2005) analyzed the effectiveness of SME business-to-business websites from a user perspective. They assessed the websites using the eQual 4.0 evaluation instrument and concluded that SMEs need to improve the information and service efficiency dimensions of their websites. Lee and Kozar (2006) researched the criteria affecting website effectiveness and the relationship between business performance and website preference adopting the AHP methodology. They stated system quality and navigability are considered the most important attributes and demonstrated that there is a significant relationship between financial performance and website preference. Sanders and Galloway (2013) evaluated the websites of rural small firms using the Web Assessment Index (WAI). They concluded that the effectiveness of small firms’ websites is generally lower than that of large firms. The quality of rural SMEs websites differs with the location of the company. SMEs need to increase website effectiveness given their remoteness and contribution to rural economies.
Dou and Tan (2002) investigated the impact of websites on export marketing and tested the proposed hypothesis utilizing the ANOVA model. They suggested that trustworthiness, comprehensive product information, multiple languages, customization capability, and responsiveness are critical components of an exporter’s website. It is concluded that the companies in different industries need to strengthen the transaction or communication capabilities of the websites.
Cebi (2013) investigated criteria affecting website effectiveness and their alteration with the website type. MCDM methods like Delphi, DEMATEL, and TOPSIS were employed for empirical analysis. Usability, visual aspects, technical adequacy, content, security, communication, and prestige were considered as main design parameters. It is concluded that the significance of the criteria shows different patterns for different types of websites (commercial, information, entertainment, communication). Kincl and Štrach (2012) attempted to compare and contrast user satisfaction attributes to find out practical measurement tools for business school website evaluation. Their research model evaluated content, presentation (colour, ap-
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peal, layout, navigation) and overall impression as success criteria, identifying a decision-tree analysis with the results of a Likert scale questionnaire. The results indicate that content and navigation are critical factors for website effectiveness.
Ecer (2014) proposed a hybrid evaluation model to assess the effectiveness of banking websites combining AHP and COPRAS-G methods. The study determined the weights of the criteria by the AHP method, and the COPRAS-G method is used to rank the websites for their effectiveness. Ecer (2014) adopted three main criteria (information quality, service quality, and system quality) and ten sub-criteria. He concluded that the most important criterion is information quality. Reliability, navigability, and response time are significant sub-criteria. The study also ranked 17 banking websites utilizing the COPRAS-G methodology.
Bulicek and Drdla (2015) evaluated the quality of urban public transport websites utilizing the AHP method. The research was intended to guide transport companies in fulfilling quality standards of information service provided by websites. Travel information, system information, additional system information, and information for non-travel purposes have been described as criteria as well as 35 sub-criteria. The weights of 35 sub-criteria have been calculated by using the AHP method. The quality of transport websites of 161 cities was ranked by estimated weights of individual information elements.
Kang et al. (2016) assessed e-commerce websites using fuzzy hierarchical TOPSIS based on E-S-QUAL. The researchers defined four criteria as efficiency, fulfilment, system availability, and privacy and 22 sub-criteria for determining the service quality of websites. The hierarchical structure has been constructed using TOPSIS, and the weights of the criteria have been decided by E-S-QUAL. The weights of the criteria show that fulfilment, efficiency, privacy, and system availability are important for a B2C website, respectively. The ranking of the preferences for the six selected B2C e-commerce websites has been carried out utilizing linguistic values and fuzzy numbers.
There are specific elements contributing to the quality and efficiency of a website. These criteria are considered as proxies of an efficient website in the relevant literature. We reviewed them with the help of the experts’ panel and added some criteria to measure the contribution of websites to the export performance of a company. The criteria, sub-criteria, and several studies employed are given in Table 1.
Table 1. The criteria and sub-criteria of website effectiveness
2. The AHPmethods
AHP, developed by Saaty (1980), addresses how to determine the relative importance of a set of activities in an MCDM problem. AHP combines subjective assessments based on qualitative criteria and objective assessments based on quantitative criteria analytically (Saaty et al., 2015). The construction of the method is based on three principles: structure of the model, comparative evaluation of the substitutes and the criteria, synthesis of the priorities. AHP has been widely used in solving many complicated decision-making problems in the literature (Dagdeviren, Yuksel 2008; Fox 2015; Franco 2014; Mosadeghi et al. 2015).
In the first step, a complex decision problem is structured as a hierarchy. AHP initially breaks down a complex multi-criteria decision-making problem into a hierarchy of interrelated decision elements (criteria, decision alternatives). With the AHP, the objectives, criteria, and alternatives are arranged in a hierarchical structure similar to a family tree. A hierarchy has at least three levels: the overall goal of the problem at the top, multiple criteria that define alternatives in the middle, and decision alternatives at the end (Albayrak, Erensal 2004).
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The second step is the comparison of the alternatives and the criteria. Once the problem has been decomposed and the hierarchy is constructed, the prioritization procedure starts in order to determine the relative importance of the criteria within each level. The pairwise judgment starts from the second level and finishes in the lowest level, alternatives. In each level, the criteria are compared pairwise according to their levels of influence and based on the specified criteria in the higher level (Albayrak, Erensal 2004). In AHP, multiple pairwise comparisons are based on a standardized comparison scale of nine levels (Table 2).
Table 2. The nine-point intensity of importance scale and its description
Intensity of importance
Moderately more important
Strongly more important
Very strongly more important
Extremely more important
1070 E. Akman, M. Dagdeviren. Discovering what makes a SME website good for international trade
The number 0.1 is the accepted upper limit for CR. If the final consistency ratio exceeds this value, the evaluation procedure has to be repeated to improve consistency. The measurement of consistency can be used to evaluate the consistency of decision-makers as well as the consistency of the overall hierarchy.
3. Empirical analysis
Our model is developed in four phases; structuring the goal, determination of criteria, weighing and ranking the criteria by means of AHP, calculation of precedence of the websites. Our goal is the evaluation of SME websites and their effectiveness from the foreign trade aspect.
3.1. Determination of criteria and sub-criteria
Determining the criteria is critical for any decision-making problem. Previous studies on website evaluation are considered at this stage. The scarcity of studies on the impact of website effectiveness on foreign trade success has led us consulting professionals. An expert panel including academics and foreign trade managers is constructed to assess the criteria contributing to the efficiency of websites. The experts’ panel included two academics and five senior export managers with more than 15 years of experience in export trading. Two academics are the authors of this article; one of them has considerable experience in foreign trade prior to his full-time researcher job. The other author has significant expertise in multi-criteria decision-making models and author of numerous articles in this field. Senior export managers have been chosen from different industries to reflect the views of experts from different fields. The members of the experts’ panel are from the sectors of iron and steel, textile, medical equipment, furniture, and plastic household goods. The criteria determined by the literature review have been assessed by the experts’ panel. This assessment has been conducted with the help of a preliminary questionnaire designed as a 5-point Likert scale. We calculated the averages for each criterion based on the individual evaluation of experts and determined the criteria to be employed in the study. The sub-criteria about system quality and service quality employed in the study (seen in Table 1) were largely respected sufficiently as these criteria are common in evaluating any websites.
However, information quality and the messages conveyed to the end-users via the website have been considered as distinguishing aspects of an exporter’s website. Thus, the export orientation of the company (i.e., exhibitions, certificates, foreign representatives, etc.) reflected on the website was suggested as effective criteria by the expert panel. Detailed product and company information were also included as success criteria with the proposal of the expert panel. As far as we are concerned, export orientation hasn’t been considered as an evaluation criterion in the previous studies. Although about 95% of the SMEs utilize their websites for information provision for their clients (Madill, Neilson 2010), company and product information haven’t been assessed in previous website evaluation studies. Only Dou and Tan (2002) included product information in their website evaluation research. The sub-criteria pertaining to the information quality are among distinctive features of our study compared to other website evaluation studies. The parameters contributing to designing an efficient
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website for an exporter company are presented in Table 1. The hierarchy of the model is configured based on the adopted 3 criteria and 10 sub-criteria.
3.2. Weighing the criteria
Weighing and ranking of the criteria and sub-criteria are performed utilizing the AHP which is an effective tool for the evaluation of qualitative criteria. The weights of the criteria were obtained with a unique questionnaire in the AHP method. The questionnaire allowing the decision-makers to compare each pair of criteria based on their own knowledge and experi-ence was constructed. The respondents evaluated the relative importance of each criterion comparing it with the competing criteria on the other side. Traditional format for AHP questionnaire has a nine-point scale. The description of this scale is demonstrated in Table 2. The comparisons, performed by personal judgments and the expertise of the participants, are critical in producing reliable results. Therefore, we sent the questionnaires to the target group made up of members who have 11,3 years of experience on average in foreign trade. The target group has been chosen from the employees of SMEs (with less than 10 million USD turnover and 150 employees) who are engaged in export business and willing to con-tribute our research. The respondents are working at the export departments of the SMEs or in the case of not having such a specific department; they are the employees who perform export activities of the company. They are representatives of their companies in terms of their foreign marketing and sales.
The assistance of local Chamber of Industry and Development Agency enabled us to access and recruit the target group. Every respondent was contacted via telephone or e-mail and ex-plained the aim and the structure of the questionnaire to increase consistency and transparency. In total, 49 experts contributed to our research completing the questionnaires. The weights are calculated by the geometric mean of the values as this is a group decision-making procedure. Table 3 exhibits pair-comparison matrix and weights of criteria. Table 4 exhibits local and global weights of sub-criteria obtained by AHP method. Global weights of sub-criteria are calculated by multiplying weight of hierarchical criteria with the local weight of sub-criteria.
The comparisons are carried out via subjective personal judgments and naturally, incon-sistency might be faced. Therefore, consistency confirmation is carried out to evaluate the degree of consistency between the pairwise comparisons. It is confirmed that consistency ratio is below the critical value of 0.1 at all levels (CR of criteria = 0.04; CR of IQ sub-criteria = 0.05; CR of SyQ sub-criteria = 0.04; CR of SeQ sub-criteria = 0.10). Therefore, the results are robust.
Table 3. Pair-comparison matrix and weights of criteria
Information Quality (IQ)
System Quality (SyQ)
Service Quality (SeQ)
E. Akman, M. Dagdeviren. Discovering what makes a SME website good for international trade
Table 4. Local and global weights of sub-criteria
3.3. Ranking of the websites
The websites of three SMEs operating in household plastics sector were chosen for assess-ment. It was attempted to show if any of the companies possess more advantage in gaining clients via their websites. It is possible to rank the websites for their efficiency using reliable weights of criteria obtained by AHP methodology. Alternative websites are ranked in the frames of the sub-criteria by experts’ panel. The experts’ panel consisting of seven members who contributed to the selection of the criteria (section 3.1) has performed the ranking of the websites. In the ranking phase, the panel selected the determined linguistic values given in Table 5 for their assessment of each criteria for a particular website. Then, the expressions are converted into scale values to be used in the calculations. The scale values are obtained using fuzzy numbers as developed by Cheng et al. (1999). The panel examined the websites and expressed their personal judgments for each of the sub-criteria verbally as very good, good, fair, poor and very poor. Then, the panel reached a consensus on each criteria suggest-ing the group opinion as one of the five verbal expressions stated above. In order to utilize verbal opinions of experts in the ranking, transformation of them to numerical values is needed. The approach of Cheng et al. (1999) is adopted at this stage. They proposed a model to translate verbal linguistic values expressing opinions into the mean of fuzzy numbers. The expert opinions expressed in linguistic values are translated into the scale values exhibited in Table 5 and used to measure the sub-criteria for the website of each company.
Table 5. Linguistic values and scale values
Very good (VG)
(0.75, 1.00, 1.00)
(0.50, 0.75, 1.00)
(0.25, 0.50, 0.75)
(0, 0.25, 0.50)
Very poor (VP)
(0, 0, 0.25)
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Table 6. Ranking of alternative websites
The preference ranking of the websites is determined by using global weight values (Ta-ble 4) and the linguistic measurement scale (Table 5). The calculations are given in Table 6. The results show that preference rankings of the websites are as follows: Company 1, Com-pany 3 and Company 2. The ranking indicates that the interested parties will probably favour website of Company 1 over others. This advantage can help Company 1 to increase prospects of turning visitors into clients and satisfy existing ones. Another implication of the ranking is that company 2 and 3 should take a closer look at the website of company 1 as a benchmark and get ideas for how to improve their website.
Samiee (1998) argues that communicating with target customers successfully is the key factor for website effectiveness. Effective use and capabilities of websites have a facilitating role in increasing the exports of SMEs (Hajidimitriou, Azaria 2009). Websites play this role through lowering the effects of distance between the parties and providing a medium for constructing an export network. Sinkovics and Penz (2006) assert that SME websites need to be empow-ered in order to gain benefits of websites. There are many website evaluation studies which contribute to this empowerment efforts in the established literature. However, evaluation of SME websites from the view of international trade is an issue not addressed sufficiently and our results can have important implications.
1074 E. Akman, M. Dagdeviren. Discovering what makes a SME website good for international trade
Many SMEs adopt and sustain websites as they regard websites as a tool for accessing new markets and expanding their export sales. Therefore, SMEs allocate funds and bear costs of websites expecting to get profits of them. The key problem we dealt in our empirical analy-sis is the impact of websites on the export potential of SMEs. Our aforementioned results portray the views of export specialists and have a potential to provide a proper approach for SME website building. More significant sub-criteria need to be drawn more attention if the corporations plan to increase the flow of foreign customers based on their websites.
The global weights of the criteria, shown in Table 4, range from 0.036 (attractiveness) to 0.165 (currency). The ranking of the criteria depicts the hierarchical importance which can guide professionals and researchers in evaluating SME websites. Findings of the study indicate that information quality (0.461) is the most important factor affecting SME website quality. This is consistent with Lin (2010) and provides further evidence for Sinkovics and Penz (2006) who put forth that the websites serving the visitors’ primary objectives increase end-user satisfaction and motivation to use websites as an information basis. The primary objective within the international trade scope is obtaining accurate information to be able to establish reliable connections globally. The experts value system quality (0.270) and ser-vice quality (0.269) as equally important factors in terms of website efficiency. The weights of criteria support the results of Ecer (2014) who evaluated banking websites: information quality (0.539), service quality (0.163) and system quality (0.298). The analytic results show that; currency and product information are the most critical and almost equal factors when global weights of sub-criteria are considered. Foreign trade experts prioritize “current” and “detailed” product information in gaining new customers via websites.
Navigability, reliability, and accessibility are among the other critical factors as illustrated in Table 4. Interestingly, export orientation is not a critical factor as the expert panel pro-posed. This implies foreign trade experts are focused on the product and the ability of the company to supply the product regardless of international network of the company. Glavas and Mathews (2014) demonstrated that previous international networking and business ex-perience are not essential for the international business success of SMEs supporting this conclusion. Responsiveness of the website is not considered as a significant factor for website effectiveness. Responsiveness is more important for the websites of e-commerce (Lee, Kozar 2006) and hospitality (Akincilar, Dagdeviren 2014) which the users need interaction. Our results pertaining responsiveness is counter-intuitive which suggests trade experts perceive websites as a communication channel rather than a transaction platform. Attractiveness has the lowest global weight indicating foreign trade practitioners are less interested in the style.
Our approach and the results on the website ranking show that it is possible to use multi-criteria decision-making methods in developing a model for assessing websites. The interde-pendence between the criteria and sub-criteria has been analysed by the experts’ panel as a first step in the development of the model. It is determined that there is no significant inter-dependence between the criteria and sub-criteria. In other words, the impact of one criterion on the other is insignificant (i.e. the level of system quality has no considerable influence on information quality). In addition, it is decided that there is no interdependence between the levels. The outcome of the preliminary assessment of the problem showed that the AHP method is more suitable in the solution of the problem. The AHP hierarchy of our method in
Technological and Economic Development of Economy, 2018, 24(3): 1063–1079
evaluating SME websites and discovering best alternative is illustrated in Figure 1. The figure depicts the levels of our decision-making process and the aspects related to each level hierar-chically. The proposed model can enable SMEs measure and benchmark the effectiveness of their corporate websites. The implementation of the model can guide SMEs in exploring the areas of improvement in their websites, particularly in terms of export facilitation.
Figure 1. Hierarchy of the AHP model
The main objective of the study is discovering the factors that make a SME website good for international trade. The results of the study reveal the hierarchical importance of the factors which serve the SMEs in obtaining an efficient website in terms of their foreign trade. First of all, the SMEs need a website that provides current information for the trade partners. Then, including detailed product information is an important aspect of a successful website in terms of international trade. Navigability, reliability and accessibility are follow-ing important features of a good website for foreign trade. Security, company information, responsiveness, export orientation and attractiveness are also criteria that contribute having good websites for international trade respectively.
The websites of companies are open exhibitions that provide a fast and borderless channel of conveying information and gaining new customers. The aim of this research is to design a practical, robust, reliable, flexible and comprehensive model for assessing websites of SMEs
1076 E. Akman, M. Dagdeviren. Discovering what makes a SME website good for international trade
from an international trade perspective. The literature has suggested many criteria affecting website effectiveness. We further investigated the website effectiveness of SMEs from the focus of international trade participants. The AHP method, which synthesizes decisions of multiple experts providing consistent and unbiased results, is employed. The criteria assigned for the issue of SME website evaluation acquired by literature review and experts’ panel.
The criteria assessment and website ranking are performed by foreign trade experts. The results suggest that product information and currency are the most important criteria for the website of a SME involved in foreign trade. Navigability, reliability, and accessibility are the subsequent criteria. Surprisingly, export orientation hasn’t been viewed as a critical factor by experts. However, this is an encouraging result for SMEs planning to enter foreign markets and become a global enterprise. Participants of international trade value the goods or services offered more than trade experience of the partners. Results also indicate that SME websites are viewed as a communication avenue rather than a transaction platform.
The proposed model shows that it is possible to measure the preference of websites based on certain criteria. The evaluation results can provide assistance for both designers and managers in developing policies for improving SME website effectiveness. Our results can contribute enhancing SME websites and increase their role in entering foreign markets and sustaining competitiveness.
The research was based on foreign trade expert assessments producing dependable re-sults. However, this fosters a potential limitation as not all participants of international trade are experts and they may have different perceptions. Effects of the heterogeneity of audience can be dealt with by employing different-level expertise groups in future works. Another extension to this study would be utilizing integrating another MCDM tools to provide more precise results.
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What are the real costs of having an export manager in your company? And are there cheaper ways to manage your international distribution network? This article shows that you can better have part-time regional country managers who travel to your headquarters once in a while.
Export manager salaries
Salaries may differ with the number of years of experience, and obviously, with the country you are based in. We made a comparison for various parts of the world:
Salary of an experienced manager
Countries like Australia and Japan are comparable in cost level with the USA, Singapore, and Hong Kong with Western Europe. Africa may be close with India for the most part; Eastern Europe and Latin America are on average on China’s cost level.
This is only part of the equation. On top of the salaries, employers have more costs, such as worker’s insurances or specific taxes. And a manager also requires attention from his boss, the HR department support departments. This overhead also needs to be taken into account.
Travel costs are flights, hotels, taxis, and meals. And since you have to optimize travel time and keep your flexibility, it’s mostly not the cheapest option.
For air travel, a significant difference is whether to travel business class or economy. Most companies have a policy that if your flight is longer than 6 or 8 hours, traveling in business class is allowed. For shorter regional flights, the economy is chosen. Seniority level and whether you have to work the next day directly may count as well.
If you have an effective export manager, they will travel at least six times a year to one of the regions they are responsible for and do some regional flights there. If the flight is intercontinental, the duration of the trip may easily be two weeks.
We have calculated intercontinental business class fares for a moderate 3,000 USD per return. Local flights for 500 USD per trip. Hotel costs for ten nights per trip for only 150 USD. Even in ‘cheap’ countries, you may pay high prices for hotels, especially if you want to meet people there. And finally, we calculated 150 USD per travel day for taxis, food, drinks, and other expenses.
Total costs for employing an export manager
We have combined the salary levels in four parts of the world and added up all costs. See the table below. We also calculated an hourly rate out of it, based on 1600 hours of work per year.
Salary of an experienced manager
Additional employer costs
Travel 6 times business class
Travel 6 times locally economy
Hotel costs 6 x 10 days
Other expenses locally
Hourly rate based on 1600 hours
This means that for a USA company if you can find somebody to do the job for you for less than 113 USD per hour, it is better to outsource the activities. For Western Europe, this is around 90 USD per hour; for China and India, lower.
Export managers are effective for only half of their time.
Export managers are mostly the most effective when interacting with your distributors or agents, so being abroad. But typically, they spend most of their time at your office since travel is expensive and tiring.
Of course, there is also paperwork to arrange and align with other company departments. However, since cultural differences within the company are limited, communication can also be email or phone. This is not the case with distributors on other continents.
Suppose you add up travel time, less effective email and phone communication with distributors abroad, and relative unfamiliarity with the target countries’ culture. In that case, export managers are only useful for about half of their time.
The alternative: working with locally-based country or regional managers
The alternative is to have a network of regional or country managers who visit your company once or twice per year. The rest are seen by you once a year and manage the country or region from within. This does not need to be full-time. You can also hire such a country or regional manager part-time with Alliance experts in over 20 countries worldwide.
This has many advantages:
The area manager better understands the local cultures.
Time differences are minimal, so better contact with the distributors or agents.
Travel costs are much lower.
Management of the local agents or distributors can be much stricter.
And especially for companies from the USA or Western Europe who want to export to ‘cheaper’ regions: you benefit from the lower salary levels and daily rates in the target country.
If you work with us, you will benefit from a locally based country or regional manager, who, on the one hand, will understand your business quickly and with whom you can easily communicate. On the other hand, he or she knows the culture, the local languages. He or she has an extensive network already. This way we can work more effectively than any export manager from abroad.
How to make the calculation?
We would be happy to make the calculation with you and show you the benefits. Please contact us through our network of local.
This guide will answer the question: “Which countries should I focus on first when I make my export plan?”
190 countries from Afghanistan to Zimbabwe
When starting with your export plans, it seems that the whole world is at your feet to conquer. But where to start? You can’t even research all these countries first, so you have to make an initial selection.
This guide helps you with this selection process. It is made specifically for small and medium-sized enterprises. In section A, we first filter out those countries that are (mostly) not suitable for an SME to do business in. filtration leads to a selection of 60 countries that at first hand seem to be ‘safe’ for you.
In section B, we help you select based on themes, such as urbanization, aging, trade & logistics, and income differences. Depending on your product or service’s most relevant features, you can decide which countries you want to research further.
All data comes from the World Bank database and is as much as possible based on the year 2016. In case 2016 data is not available, we use 2015, as long as no significant changes are to be expected (in case of year-‐to-‐year inflation, the changes may be substantial, in case of the urbanization, changes will be limited).
There was insufficient data available from several countries, mostly smaller countries like Belize, Monaco, Malta, or Tunesia, confined economies like Cuba and North Korea, and governments at war like Somalia, Syria, and Yemen. Hong Kong and Macau mentioned Taiwan is not in the statistics since China doesn’t see it as a country.
An explanation on GDP and PPP
n our comparison, we have used the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of a country. GDP is the monetary value of all the finished goods and services produced within a country’s borders in a specific period. Income from overseas investments, for example, is not taken into account.
The GDP PPP is the Gross Domestic Product converted to dollars using Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) rates. Goods and services may be cheaper or more expensive in different countries. With a GDP per person of, for example, 40.000 dollars in the US, you can buy more than with the same GDP per person in Australia. The GDP PPP corrects this, so in Australia, the GDP PPP will be only 30.000 dollars.
Hoy en día, el acumulación en el nube adecuado permitirá que su empresa funcione de manera mucho más eficiente. Por otra parte las salas de datos virtuales brindan no solamente eficiencia, ventura también el más vasto nivel sobre seguridad si pretende su negocio también datos confidenciales. Lea mucho más sobre este producto de renombre internacional seguidamente.
Niveles de seguridad de desarrollo, certificaciones y modo
Las salas de datos virtuales se crearon para resolver los problemas reales de las firmas modernas, por otra parte uno de los máximas desafíos en nuestros días es trabajar con origen de forma segura. La base para la creación de salas de datos paseó el protocolo de defensa internacional si pretende el desarrollo web. Sirve el finalidad de las tecnologías más y más confiables, particularmente la defensa de los procesos de trabajo con documentación. Los archivos subidos a la sala virtual se almacenarán en combinados copias, asimismo, en diversos centros de datos. Las actualizaciones periódicas de copias y equipos que funcionan a la perfección hasta en condiciones extremas son la clave para cierto almacenamiento seguro.
En tanto que trabaja con la documentación, tendrá el máximo control sobre el uso. Logra configurar los parámetros sobre acceso, limitar el tiempo de finalidad, las direcciones IP, revocar el acercamiento en cualquier momento (y también tras descargar el documento). El registro de grabación sobre sesiones sobre trabajo con documentos controlará adicionalmente de los usuarios, cada uno de los cuales deberá confirmar la identidad antes que comenzar con trabajar.
Funciones de el sala sobre datos aparente para una empresa exitosa
Levante almacenamiento es la capacidad de almacenar origen, trabajar con ellos también comunicarse. Sobre primer sitio, puede alcanzar a el documentación las 24 períodos del data, los 7 días de la semana desde completo dispositivo que le sea conveniente, particularmente compartirla prontamente. En siguiente lugar, currar con sus colegas yacerá más urgente y eficaz. Podrá currar sin vínculo y acoger estadísticas de productividad para cada boceto. La gestión del acción en la plataforma dataroom será sencilla gracias a el interfaz y las herramientas intuitivas (chat seguro, informe de cambios, diferentes posiciones de acceso).
En tercer lugar, un entorno palpable para trabajar con documentación significa más y más transacciones con socios por otra parte clientes de todo el mundo. Serás capaz realizar prontamente las adquisiciones, fusiones mucho más complejas, así como preparar registro, informes, ejecutar auditorías longevo involucrar con diversos especialistas en el modelo en escaso tiempo. También, las salas de datos virtuales resultan ideales para reuniones de gestión sobre línea.
Regla de prueba y soporte técnico
El mejor forma de asimilar todo acerca las salas de origen virtuales está activando un período sobre prueba (30 días). Mi es esta es una gran oportunidad para trabajar con todas ellas las funciones e envolver a sus colegas. Logrará evaluar la calidad del software en sí, la utilidad de las funciones, particularmente el servicio. La atencion de soporte está ligero para obrar con sus preguntas sobre cualquier momento del día y en diferentes idiomas del mundo, porque la eficiencia y la movilidad son ventajas clave en los tiempos que corren.
LED lamps have been around for a few years but are just read this now becoming very popular. One of the main reasons for this is the fact they are durable and also environmentally friendly. An LED lamp is basically an electrical lumination which creates light simply by use of light-emitting diode bulbs. LED lamps are much even more energy efficient than equivalent incandescents, so they are ideal for places where it truly is needed to light a large space in a single spot, just like an office or maybe a warehouse.
An additional of using these lights is that they own a high electric power factor, which means that their lumination output is certainly significantly above any other sort of lamp. This is particularly important if you need to use LED lamps meant for industrial applications or areas which demand a lot of power. In such cases it will be possible to acquire LED lighting fixtures which have a rating of more than ninety percent of capacity, which will make all of them capable of powering an extensive number of equipment, which includes machinery. The high electric power factor is among the main reasons why many businesses contain started choosing these lamps for use in the operations.
Besides being energy-efficient, another advantage of using LED lights is they tend to have if you are a00 of color rendering. This is because the diodes in the lights create colors on a very tight array of intensity, which means the colors made by the lights are very accurate, which is essential for uses, including in gaming consoles, if the color copy is important. As well, due to their dangerous of color rendering, the lighting coming from led lamps can be adjusted to match different purposes. For instance, obviously possible to choose down the light a bit whether it is getting to near night time, which would allow you to use less energy. In this way, the high level of energy efficiency and accuracy make LED lamps a great choice for many people applications.
Computer protection software or cyberspace coverage software is basically any computer application created to affect level of privacy in a system, the anatomy’s security or networks. It is usually used by organizations and large establishments to protect very sensitive data right from being stolen. This kind of protection can be provided by means of a fire wall or some kind of intrusion recognition software. This kind of protection software may also stop the hacking into the system through a network and can also let network facilitators to trace and block dubious activity. Some of the most significant aspects of pc security incorporate detecting attacks, blocking destructive content, checking users visiting harmful sites, performing network scans to determine if a secureness threat is present, and alerts on system and program security.
In addition to prevention, pupils for a certain benefits connected with having your system protected with anti-spyware proper protection software just like spyware recognition. As already brought up earlier, spyware and adware can affect all the parts of a computer and if you remove them, they could basically cause more harm to your laptop or computer then in case you didn’t own www.antiviruschips.com/best-antivirus-for-mac-os them at all. Most likely, this destructive software is included with its own system which enables it to perform without your understanding and you will certainly not know about this. Once that gets installed in your operating system, it can accomplish many different activities including changing your homepage, creating shortcuts, devastating programs, and redirecting your online traffic. In case you are affected by this kind of spyware, then you certainly will not only encounter slow packing of applications and even regular crashing, however your data in addition to the security of your personal information could also get compromising.
When it comes to protecting yourself from threats of spyware, that can be done so through having your program protection program updated on a regular basis. This will help in protecting against the newly uncovered threats of spyware, ad ware, Trojans, viruses and other malicious software that normally slide onto your program once you install or download anything from the Internet. Without having your first distinctive line of protection, these kinds of attacks can potentially enter the body and start doing damage to files, files and adjustments which are not meant for the use. This could possibly also bring about the loss of important data, and you may not be able to gain access to your data and work at the same time. Therefore , being sure of what safety software to download is very important so that you can stop such things from happening on your computer.