Bell Pepper Russia

Bell Pepper

 Russia, with its vast consumer base and growing demand for fresh produce, presents an exciting opportunity for exporters of bell pepper. In this article, we will delve into the export potential of bell pepper to Russia, discuss the necessary documents and regulations, highlight popular varieties of bell pepper in the Russian market, and shed light on the competitive landscape.

Standards Required for Exporting Bell Peppers to Russia

 Before venturing into the Russian market, it is crucial to understand the necessary documents and regulations. Exporters should ensure compliance with phytosanitary requirements, including obtaining a phytosanitary certificate issued by the exporting country’s plant protection organization. Additionally, familiarize yourself with customs procedures, labeling requirements, and any specific regulations imposed by Russian authorities.

Standard: (UNECE FFV-28:2010), GOST R 55885 – 2013

 Pepper is an agricultural product whose popularity in Russia is increasing every year. The sale of a type of vegetable, like all food products, is allowed only after confirming the quality and safety. Declaration of Conformity for pepper is a mandatory authorization document based on which the trade of the commodity is considered legal.

The regulatory documents governing the production and sale of food products are:
1. TR CU 021/2011 includes safety criteria for all food products.
2. TR CU 022/2011 helps control the labeling of vegetable products.
3. TR TS 029/2012 regulates the use of food additives in the processing of food products.

According to these technical rules, the declaration of pepper is mandatory. Due to the lack of declaration of food products, the entrepreneur will be fined, deprived of the undeclared goods, and have the right to operate for up to 90 days.

Declarations for bell peppers or other vegetable products are issued after successful laboratory tests that evaluate:
Organoleptic indicators (taste, appearance, color uniformity); 5

Pesticides and toxic substances;
1. Absence of pathogenic microorganisms;
2. Combination of food additives and flavorings

In the laboratory, samples of the labels are checked, on which he is obliged to apply:
1. Product Name;
2.
Manufacturer information
3. Vegetable harvest date
4. Product expiration date;

 Based on that, the specialists of the certification organization decide on the results of the implementation of the declaration to be tested. After registering the document, the manufacturer shall mark the right of the product with the EAC mark, indicating that the product complies with the requirements of the technical rules of the Customs Union.

Top Exporters of Bell Pepper to Russia

Several countries have established themselves as prominent exporters of bell peppers to Russia. Among the top exporters are:

 

List of supplying markets for the product imported by the Russian Federation in 2022

Product: 070960 Fresh or chilled fruits of the genus Capsicum or Pimenta

Exporters

Select your indicators

Value imported in 2022 (USD thousand)

Trade balance 2022 (USD thousand)

Share in Russian Federation’s imports (%)

The quantity imported in 2022

Total

124,093

-123,853

100

85,313

Israel

47,012

-47,012

37.9

22,091

China

30,659

-30,659

24.7

26,296

Türkiye

22,977

-22,772

18.5

18,622

Armenia

13,582

-13,582

10.9

8,010

Uzbekistan

4,472

-4,451

3.6

4,448

Kyrgyzstan

2,099

-2,099

1.7

2,331

Macedonia, North

1,458

-1,458

1.2

928

Thailand

447

-447

0.4

76

Kazakhstan

370

-357

0.3

1,946

3Netherlands

347

-347

0.3

129

While there are dominant exporters of bell peppers to Russia, local and regional competitors also actively participate in satisfying the growing demand. Russian farmers and agricultural enterprises have been making efforts to meet the market needs by increasing domestic production. This competition not only provides consumers with a wider range of choices but also promotes price competitiveness.

 

Additionally, neighboring countries such as Belarus, Ukraine, and Kazakhstan also export bell peppers to Russia. Their geographical proximity offers logistical advantages, shorter transportation routes, and potentially fresher produce.

Cement Market in Indonesia

Cement Market in Indonesia

 The cement market in Indonesia has witnessed significant growth in recent years, driven by infrastructure development, urbanization, and a growing construction industry. This article aims to provide an overview of the cement market in Indonesia, including import values and volumes, standards and requirements for exporting to Indonesia, key competitors, top exporters of cement, popular varieties of cement, and other relevant details.

Popular Varieties of Cement in Indonesia

In Indonesia, several varieties of cement are popularly used in construction projects. These include Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC), Portland Composite Cement (PCC), and Sulphate Resistant Cement (SRC). OPC is the most widely used cement type, suitable for general construction purposes. PCC, which combines Portland cement with supplementary cementitious materials, offers enhanced durability and strength. SRC is specifically designed for areas with high sulfate content in the soil or water.

Import Value and Volume

Indonesia, despite being a major cement producer, also imports cement to meet domestic demand. According to real data from the Indonesian Central Statistics Agency (BPS), the import value of cement in Indonesia reached approximately $100 million in 2020. This indicates a steady demand for imported cement in the country. The import volume of cement in the same year was around 1.5 million metric tons.

Competitors in the Cement Market in Indonesia

The cement market in Indonesia is highly competitive, with both domestic and international players vying for market share. Some of the key competitors in the market include PT Semen Indonesia (the largest cement producer in Indonesia), PT Indocement Tunggal Prakarsa, PT Holcim Indonesia, and PT Lafarge Cement Indonesia. These companies have established strong market positions and have extensive distribution networks across the country.

Top Exporters of Cement

Indonesia also exports cement to various countries. According to trade data, the top exporters of cement to Indonesia include Vietnam, China, Thailand, Malaysia, and South Korea. These countries have been able to meet the demand for specific types of cement in the Indonesian market.

Exporters

Select your indicators

Value imported in 2022 (USD thousand)

Trade balance 2022 (USD thousand)

Share in Indonesia’s imports (%)

Quantity imported in 2022

Quantity unit

Unit value (USD/unit)

World

163,371

-141,737

100

1,078,118

Tons

152

China

123,572

-123,530

75.6

806,246

Tons

153

Malaysia

29,635

-25,973

18.1

255,494

Tons

116

Viet Nam

2,563

-2,555

1.6

815

Tons

3,145

Spain

1,745

-1,545

1.1

961

Tons

1,816

Singapore

1,223

-993

0.7

11,582

Tons

106

Japan

1,178

-995

0.7

215

Tons

5,479

United Kingdom

963

-465

0.6

1,043

Tons

923

Germany

881

-759

0.5

112

Tons

7,866

Thailand

454

72

0.3

583

Tons

779

Italy

430

-419

0.3

673

Tons

639

Standards and Requirements for Exporting to Indonesia

 To export cement to Indonesia, manufacturers must adhere to certain standards and requirements. The Indonesian National Standard (SNI) for cement sets the quality and safety standards that imported cement must meet. Additionally, exporters must obtain the necessary permits and certifications from relevant Indonesian authorities, such as the Ministry of Trade and the Ministry of Industry.

 The cement market in Indonesia presents both opportunities and challenges for domestic and international players. With a growing construction industry and infrastructure development projects, the demand for cement remains strong. However, competition is fierce, with established local players dominating the market. Exporters looking to enter the Indonesian market must ensure compliance with quality standards and obtain the necessary permits. Understanding the popular varieties of cement and the preferences of the Indonesian market can also contribute to successful market entry and growth in this dynamic industry.

tajikestan

Tajikistan

Tajikistan

 Tajikistan is a landlocked country in Central Asia. Neighboring countries include Afghanistan, China, Kyrgyzstan, and Uzbekistan. The geography of Tajikistan is dominated by the Pamir-Alay mountains along with valleys in the south and southwest. The government system is a republic; the chief of state is the president, and the head of government is the prime minister. Tajikistan has a mixed economy in which there is a variety of private freedom, combined with centralized economic planning and government regulation.

Population Population Growth Rate Age Dependency Ratio Urban Population Infant Mortality Rate Life Expectancy at Birth
9,750,064 (2021)
2.144 annual % (2021)
65.936 % of working-age population (2021)
27.726 % of total (2021)
28.4 per 1,000 live births (2020)
67.994 years (2020)

Business partners

Exporters

Select your indicators

Value imported in 2022 (USD thousand)

Trade balance 2022 (USD thousand)

Share in Tajikistan’s imports (%)

Total

3,569,444

-2,300,821

100

China

2,217,030

-1,835,277

62.1

Uzbekistan

392,713

-227,298

11

Türkiye

388,736

-217,411

10.9

United States of America

123,628

-122,128

3.5

Korea, Republic of

92,676

-92,308

2.6

Lithuania

65,164

-59,618

1.8

Germany

59,385

-56,930

1.7

Italy

26,786

-4,095

0.8

Japan

23,835

-21,543

0.7

Poland

20,907

-15,652

0.6

Importers

Select your indicators

Value exported in 2022 (USD thousand)

Trade balance 2022 (USD thousand)

Share in Tajikistan’s exports (%)

Total

1,268,623

-2,300,821

100

China

381,753

-1,835,277

30.1

Switzerland

279,170

276,261

22

Türkiye

171,325

-217,411

13.5

Uzbekistan

165,415

-227,298

13

Hong Kong, China

97,976

80,155

7.7

France

79,711

70,121

6.3

Belgium

32,623

24,161

2.6

Italy

22,691

-4,095

1.8

Brazil

7,761

7,674

0.6

Lithuania

5,546

-59,618

0.4

Major Cities

Dushanbe

Khujand

Kulob

Bokhtar

Culture

 Tajikistan‘s culture is a fascinating blend of ancient traditions and influences from neighboring regions. With a history deeply rooted in Persian and Turkic cultures, Tajikistan showcases a unique cultural identity. The Tajik language, closely related to Persian, is the official language and serves as a symbol of cultural heritage. Islam plays a significant role in shaping the cultural practices and values of the Tajik people, with mosques and religious observances being an integral part of daily life.

 Hospitality is a cornerstone of Tajik culture, where guests are warmly welcomed and treated with utmost respect. Traditional music and dance are cherished forms of artistic expression, with instruments like the rubab and tanbur accompanying lively performances. Tajik craftsmanship is renowned, with intricate embroidery, pottery, and wood carving showcasing the artistic skills passed down through generations. Traditional clothing, adorned with vibrant colors and elaborate patterns, adds to the visual richness of Tajik culture. The cuisine of Tajikistan is diverse, influenced by its neighboring countries, and features dishes like plov, which is a flavorful rice dish cooked with meat and vegetables.

 In summary, Tajikistan’s culture is a captivating tapestry woven with historical influences, religious practices, warm hospitality, artistic expressions, and delectable cuisine. It is a culture that proudly celebrates its heritage while embracing the influences of the modern world.

Weather and Climate

 Tajikistan experiences a continental climate, characterized by hot summers and cold winters. The climate varies across the country due to its diverse topography, which includes high mountains, valleys, and deserts.

 In general, Tajikistan has hot and dry summers, with temperatures reaching up to 40°C (104°F) in some lowland areas. However, temperatures tend to be cooler in the mountainous regions. Winters are cold, with temperatures dropping below freezing, especially in the higher elevations. Snowfall is common during the winter months.

Natural Resources

 Tajikistan is rich in natural resources. It has significant deposits of minerals, including gold, silver, lead, zinc, and uranium. The country also has substantial reserves of natural gas and coal. Additionally, Tajikistan is known for its hydropower potential, with numerous rivers and lakes providing opportunities for hydroelectric power generation.

 The diverse geography of Tajikistan contributes to its natural resources. The country is home to the Pamir Mountains, which are part of the larger Himalayan mountain range. These mountains provide a source of freshwater through rivers and glaciers, supporting agriculture and hydroelectric power generation.

 It’s worth noting that the availability and exploitation of natural resources in Tajikistan are influenced by various factors, including infrastructure, economic conditions, and geopolitical considerations. The country continues to explore and develop its natural resources to support its economic growth and development.

Economic Index

GDP (current US$) – Tajikistan
Year 2021:   8,746,270.64

GDP, PPP (current international $) – Tajikistan
Year 2021:   41,809,911.37

GDP per capita, PPP (current international $) – Tajikistan
Year 2021:   4,288.2

GDP per capita (constant LCU) – Tajikistan
Year 2021:   847

GDP per capita (current US$) – Tajikistan
Year 2021:   897.0

Gini index – Tajikistan
Year 2015:   34.0

Social Media Stats in Tajikistan

Facebook = 49.34%

Instagram = 31.92%

YouTube = 6.17%

Pinterest = 5.87%

Twitter = 3.09%

VKontakte = 2.79%

Standards

 Tajikistan has been a member of WTO since 2 March 2013. More information can be found on the WTO site. Tajikistan is in the process of harmonizing its standards with international norms.  U.S. companies should be aware that, on paper, Tajikistan has a comprehensive system of mandatory standards but, in practice, cannot properly administer the complex and demanding standards system.  The absence of well-equipped laboratories, qualified staff, and effective enforcement capacity are serious problems.  In principle, Tajikistan accepts the conformity certificates issued by its major trading partners; in practice, however, some importers say this does not happen. 

Standards:
The Law on Certification of Products and Services and other acts regulate certification procedures in Tajikistan.  According to article 12 of the Law on State Foreign Trade Regulation, all commodities imported to Tajikistan are required to meet technical, pharmacological, sanitary, veterinary, phyto-sanitary and environmental standards and requirements.  All services and processes are subject to certification, the procedure for which is in theory the same for all products.

Import Tariffs

 Tajikistan’s official trade regime is relatively liberal; tariff rates range between zero and fifteen percent, with the overall trade-weighted import tariff averaging out to around seven percent.  The world’s forty-five least developed countries are exempt from import tariffs.  The Tajik Customs Code generally complies with WTO requirements on evaluation and rates and Agreement on Rules of Goods Transit.  The main difference is in the evaluation methods of goods for customs purposes.

ghana

Ghana

Ghana

 Ghana, located on the west coast of Africa, is a vibrant and culturally rich country known for its historical significance, natural beauty, and warm hospitality. The government system is a presidential republic; the chief of state and head of government is the president. Ghana has a mixed economic system, which includes some private freedom combined with weak centralized economic planning and government regulation. Ghana is a member of the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS).
 With a population of over 30 million people, Ghana boasts a diverse mix of ethnic groups, each contributing to the country’s unique cultural tapestry. Form the bustling markets to Accra, the capital city, to the serene beaches along the Atlantic coastline, Ghana offers a captivating blend of traditional and modern experiences. With a stable democracy and a growing economy, Ghana has emerged as a prominent player in the region, attracting both tourists and investors oneself in the rhythms of highlife music, or savoring the flavors of local cuisine, Ghana offers a captivating journey into the heart of West Africa.

Population Population Growth Rate Age Dependency Ratio Urban Population Infant Mortality Rate Life Expectancy at Birth
31,072,945 (2020)
2.131 annual % (2020)
67.424 % of working-age population (2020)
57.349 % of total (2020)
33.9 per 1,000 live births (2019)
64.074 years (2019)

Business partners

Exporters

Select your indicators

Value imported in 2021 (USD thousand)

Trade balance 2021 (USD thousand)

Share in Ghana’s imports (%)

Total

18,500,854

-5,748,889

100

China

7,365,480

-6,128,968

39.8

India

1,099,174

489,769

5.9

Netherlands

1,043,693

-253,377

5.6

United States of America

983,215

795,868

5.3

Belgium

686,135

-404,826

3.7

Malaysia

570,308

-104,693

3.1

United Kingdom

551,832

-369,525

3

Turkey

461,851

-342,568

2.5

Germany

421,075

-84,204

2.3

South Africa

415,185

131,335

2.2

Importers

Select your indicators

Value exported in 2021 (USD thousand)

Trade balance 2021 (USD thousand)

Share in Ghana’s exports (%)

Total

12,751,965

-5,748,889

100

Switzerland

2,451,468

2,417,914

19.2

United States of America

1,779,083

795,868

14

India

1,588,943

489,769

12.5

China

1,236,512

-6,128,968

9.7

Netherlands

790,316

-253,377

6.2

South Africa

546,520

131,335

4.3

Malaysia

465,615

-104,693

3.7

Italy

340,277

56,943

2.7

Germany

336,871

-84,204

2.6

France

324,449

84,512

2.5

Major Cities

Accra

Kumasi

Sekondi-Takorandi

Culture

 The People of Ghana are warn and friendly. They are polite, open and trusting – even with strangers. In Ghanaian society, it is traditional to take life at a relaxed pace and view time as a series of events rathe than a matter of hours or minutes.

In Ghanaian society, people are more important than schedules.

 Most Ghanaians consider “Let’s get to business” conversation rude. It is custom for Ghanaians to exchange pleasantries and ask about family before beginning business. They greet one another, making extra effort to greet older people. With the men, handshakes almost always accompany greetings.

Ghana’s 24 million people include six major ethnic groups that break into more than 60 smaller ones.

 The six larger groups are the Akan (Ashanti and Fanti), the Ewe, the Ga-Adangbe, the Mole-Dagbani, the Guan and the Gruma. Like most other African nations, Ghana has rich, traditional cultures that differ from one ethnic group to another.

 Along with different ethnic groups and cultures, 52 separate languages and hundreds of dialects are spoken in Ghana. The official language is English – a residual of British colonial rule, from which modern Ghana gained independence in 1957.

 Until its independence, Ghana was known as the Gold Coast. It was renamed Ghana, meaning “Warrior King”, to reflect the ancient Ghana Empire that flourished in West Africa during the 10th century.

 Today, the Ghanaian government is a unitary republic considering of a president, parliament, cabinet, council of state and an independent judiciary. it is tradition t hold elections every four years. The government administration operates out of the central business district of Accra, the country’s capital city. As  the country’s largest city, Accra has population of roughly 2.4 million.

Ghanaians emphasize values such as the importance of family, respect for the elderly and honor for traditional rulers.

 They place high value on dignity and proper social conduct. Individual conduct is seen as having impact on an entire family, social group and community. Therefore, each person is expected to be respectful, dignified and observant in nearly every aspect of life.

 An entire family shares any loss of honor, which makes the culture a collective one. protecting this sense of “Face” requires harmony. People behave with decorum to ensure they don’t cause embarrassment to others.

Everything is shared – even food, no matter how small the amount.

Weather and Climate

 Ghana has a typically tropical climate thanks to its proximity to the equator and low elevations – the entire county lies below 1,000m (3300ft). Daytime temperatures are high throughout the year, approaching or surpassing 30°C (86°F) on most days, and humidity is also very high, especially along the coast. Temperatures tend to drop around 20°C (68°F) at night, more noticeably in the relatively dry north than the humid south. The most temperate part of Ghana is the highlands area flanking the Volta Basin, which is often pleasantly cool after dusk.

Natural Resources

 The country is endowed this rich natural resources. Timber, Gold, Diamonds, Bauxite, Manganese, and Oil contribute to making Ghana among the wealthier nations in West Africa. While its economy is one of the most successful in the region, it remains heavily dependent on international finance.

Economic Index

GDP (current US$) – Ghana
77,594,279.05

GDP, PPP (current international $) – Ghana
196,050,132.52

GDP per capita, PPP (current international $) – Ghana
6,178.3

GDP per capita (current US$) – Ghana
2,445.3

Gini index – Ghana
43.5

Inflation, consumer prices (annual %) – Ghana
10.0

Social Media Stats in Ghana

Facebook = 58.33%

YouTube = 16.6%

Twitter = 12.21%

Pinterest = 7.7%

Instagram = 4.54%

LinkedIn = 0.3%

Standards

 Ghana uses 220V and for electricity and the metric system of measurement.

 The Ghana Standards Authority (GSA), formerly known as the Ghana Standards Board, is responsible for developing and promulgating standards as well as ensuring that the quality of goods imported into Ghana meets acceptable standards. The Ghana Food and Drugs Authority (FDA) also regulates and certifies food, drugs, cosmetics and other products that have health implications for consumers. This arrangement involves some overlap between the two bodies, a situation which the government of Ghana (Ministry of Trade and Industry) is attempting to resolve.

Import Tariffs

 Ghana currently uses the harmonized System (HS) Customs Code to classify goods. Tariffs are based on value (ad valorem) or weight or volume (specific) and are subject to change. Most goods, unless they are totally exempt from customs duties, are subject to an important duty, Value Added Tax (VAT), and certain other fees and charges. The import duty is assessed on the Cost Insurance Freight (CIF) value of the good. The VAT and other fees and charges are assessed on CIF + Duty.

 Consistent with the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) common external tariff (CET), Ghana applies five tariff bands to products from the United States:
1. Zero percent duty on essential social goods (e.g., medicine)
2. 5 percent duty on essential commodities, raw materials, and capital goods
3. 10 percent duty on intermediate goods
4. 20 percent duty on consumer goods
5. 35 percent duty on certain goods that the Ghanaian Government elected to afford greater protection.

 Imports are subject to a variety of fees and charges in addition to tariffs. Ghana imposes a 0.5 percent ECOWAS levy on all goods originating from non-ECOWAS countries, a 0.2 percent levy on imports from outside African Union (AU) Member States, and a 0.75 percent Export-Import Act fee on all non-petroleum products on all imports, except for machinery and equipment listed under Chapters 84 and 85 of the Harmonized Tariff System and some petroleum products and fertilizers.

Dates

Date In Oman

Date In Oman

Dates hold a significant position in Omani culture and cuisine, making them a highly valued commodity in the country. Oman’s climate and fertile soil make it ideal for date cultivation, but the demand for this delectable fruit often surpasses the local production capacity. As a result, Oman relies heavily on importing dates to meet the needs of its residents and tourists alike. In this article, we will explore the import value of dates in Oman, the standards required for their export, the top exporters in the country, the competition faced by local producers, and some popular date varieties in Oman.

 Oman‘s love for dates transcends borders, and imported dates play a crucial role in fulfilling the nation’s demands. According to recent statistics, the import value of dates in Oman amounted to millions of dollars annually. This figure underlines the significance of date imports in the country and emphasizes the potential for businesses to tap into this market.

Standards Needed to Export Dates to Oman

 To ensure the quality and safety of dates imported into Oman, the Omani authorities have set specific standards that need to be met by exporters. These standards encompass various aspects, including the date’s size, color, texture, and taste. Additionally, there are regulations pertaining to packaging, labeling, and shelf life to guarantee that the imported dates reach consumers in optimal condition.

 Exporters interested in entering the Omani market need to adhere to these standards to gain the necessary certifications and approvals for their products. Complying with the requirements not only ensures the acceptance of the dates in Oman but also builds trust among consumers, which is essential for long-term success.

 Exporting dates to Oman involves certain paperwork and documentation to ensure smooth customs clearance and compliance with import regulations. The required documents generally include a commercial invoice, certificate of origin, health certificate, packaging list, and bill of lading. These documents demonstrate the authenticity, quality, and compliance of the exported dates, streamlining the import process and minimizing any delays or complications.  

Top Exporters of Dates in Oman

 Several countries excel in exporting dates to Oman, supplying the nation with a diverse range of high-quality produce. Some of the top exporters of dates to Oman include Saudi Arabia, Iran, Egypt, Jordan, and the United Arab Emirates. These countries have developed strong trade relationships with Omani buyers and have established their reputation for consistently delivering superior date varieties.

 While dates are widely imported into Oman, the local market also witnesses intense competition from domestic date producers. Oman boasts its own thriving date industry, with numerous farms and companies dedicated to cultivating and processing dates. Domestic competitors play a vital role in meeting the local demand, offering a variety of delicious Omani date types that resonate with the cultural preferences of the population.

Popular Dates in Oman

 Omanis take pride in their affinity for dates, and the country hosts an abundant variety of date cultivars. Some of the popular date types in Oman include Khalas, Fardh, Khunaizi, Um Asemad, and Barhi. Each variety possesses its unique flavor profile, texture, and sweetness, adding richness to Omani delicacies and traditional dishes.

 In conclusion, the import value of dates in Oman is substantial, emphasizing the need for exporters to meet the established standards to enter this lucrative market successfully. While competition exists, the diverse range of date varieties and the cultural appreciation for dates in Oman present enormous opportunities for both importers and local producers. Understanding the necessary documentation and compliance requirements is essential for a seamless export process.

Oman

Oman

Oman

 Oman is a country in Southwest Asia on the coast of the Arabian Sea, Gulf of Oman, and the Persian Gulf. Neighboring countries include Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, and Yemen. Oman has a strategic location on the Arabian Peninsula adjacent to the Strait of Hormuz, a vital transit point for crude oil. The geography of Oman is mountainous and arid. The government system is a monarchy; the chief of state and head of government is the sultan and prime minister. Oman is a member of the League of Arab States (Arab League) and the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC).

Population Population Growth Rate Age Dependency Ratio Urban Population Infant Mortality Rate Life Expectancy at Birth
4,520,471 (2021)
-0.506 annual % (2021)
41.966 % of working-age population (2021)
87.044 % of total (2021)
9.5 per 1,000 live births (2020)
74.757 years (2020)

Business Partners

Exporters

Select your indicators

Value imported in 2020 (USD thousand)

Share in Oman’s imports (%)

Total

28,403,649

100

United Arab Emirates

9,688,488

34.1

China

3,091,184

10.9

India

2,308,351

8.1

Japan

1,291,234

4.5

United States of America

1,129,864

4

Saudi Arabia

839,949

3

Germany

838,780

3

Qatar

747,622

2.6

Brazil

737,319

2.6

Korea, Republic of

610,735

2.2

Importers

Select your indicators

Value exported in 2020 (USD thousand)

Share in Oman’s exports (%)

Total

34,790,058

100

China

15,551,773

44.7

India

3,045,148

8.8

Korea, Republic of

2,176,821

6.3

United Arab Emirates

1,835,145

5.3

Saudi Arabia

1,651,689

4.7

Japan

1,467,607

4.2

United States of America

886,675

2.5

Taipei, Chinese

728,842

2.1

South Africa

662,745

1.9

Malaysia

647,010

1.9

Culture

 Oman is a welcoming, but conservative, country. Modest dress is appreciated, such as loose clothing covering arms and legs. The main religion in the country is Islam, specifically the branch of Islam known as Ibadism. Religion is very important in Oman and plays a large part in the daily life of most citizens.

If you are invited to visit on Omani household, it is recommended to bring a small, non-alcoholic gift, and to take off your shoes before entering. Conversations are likely to include questions about your personal life, including marital status, your age, religion, and your thoughts about Oman. These questions come from a genuine interest in getting to know you and are not meant to cause offence.

Natural Resources

 Oman has limited water resources. The country is dependent on groundwater and its limited rainfall (of around 100 millimeters annually) for about 65 percent of its water supply. The remaining 35 percent comes from desalinated seawater.

While grazing lands, land for agriculture, and wildlife have always provided the mainstay for food production, the marine environment and fishing were the most important resources in the coastal parts of the country.

Today, however, oil and gas, which have been exploited since the 1960s, are the most important resources of national income. Among the member states of the Gulf Cooperation Council Oman has one of the smallest proven oil reserves: 5,500 million barrels. More important are its gas reserves: 30,000 billion cubic feet.

Other resources include copper, chromite, magnesium, gold, coal, industrial ores and raw materials for building materials such as sand, silica, marble, and limestone.

The mining and quarrying sector in Kenya accounts for less than 1 percent of gross domestic product, with the majority being contributed by the soda ash operation at Lake Magadi in south-central Kenya. In 2010, Kenya’s share of the world’s soda ash production amounted to 4%. Cement, Fluorspar, and Petroleum refining were the other mining and mineral processing activities undertaken by the mining sector.

Economic Index

 GDP

64,648,393.04

 

GDP, PPP

246,068,248.30

 

GDP per capita, PPP

28,448.86

GDP per capita

12,659.7

 

Gini index 2020

30.75

 

 Inflation, consumer prices

-0.9

Social Media Stats in Oman

Facebook = 38.17%

Instagram = 28.48%

YouTube = 16.34%

Twitter = 8.92%

Pinterest = 7.42%

LinkedIn = 0.32%

Browser Market Share in Oman

Chrome = 72.7%

Safari = 16.22%

Samsung Internet = 3.58%

Edge = 3.31%

UC Browser = 1.73%

Opera = 1.33%

Standards

 The Directorate General of Specifications and Metrology (DGSM) at the MOCIIP is responsible for standardization, metrology, testing, quality control and quality assurance, conformity assessment and certification, and accreditation activities. Oman is harmonizing its technical regulations and standards at the GCC level and develops technical regulations and standards at the national level only if there is a pressing need, according to authorities.

Trade Agreements

 Under the FTA, Oman provides immediate duty-free access on virtually all industrial and consumer products in its tariff schedule, and it phased out tariffs on the remaining handful of products in 2019. The United States provides immediate duty-free access for 100 percent of Oman’s current exports of agricultural products to the United States. Oman is also a member of the Gulf Cooperation Council, which allows for duty-free trade between its members and with other countries with which it has a free trade agreement.

Import Tariffs

 Oman’s tariff schedule imposes duties, generally not exceeding 10 percent, on all foreign, non-American/GCC goods imports. Virtually all U.S.-origin products enjoy duty-free access, and Oman has phased out nearly all tariffs on the remaining handful of products. Tariff preference levels on certain textile and apparel products expired at the end of 2018.

Despite the entry into force of the U.S.-Oman Free Trade Agreement (FTA) in 2009, U.S. firms report some difficulty importing some goods duty-free. The Royal Oman Police Directorate General of Customs (ROP Customs) still occasionally collects customs duties on some bonded items transshipped to Oman by road via the UAE. Some American companies have reported that goods not individually engraved as “Made in the USA” do not receive the preferential treatment to which they are entitled under the FTA. In addition, some importers have reported that ROP Customs has denied duty-free entry to imports meeting the 35-percent American origin requirement for duty-free access, due to the presence of a few non-American parts in the same container. This practice is also in violation of the FTA. The FTA does not require the legalization or “casualization” of trading documents. The FTA also does not require shipments to originate in U.S. ports or airports, and it allows for transshipment by land.

The Oman Tax Authority imposes an excise tax on alcoholic beverages, carbonated drinks, energy drinks, pork and pork products and tobacco and tobacco products, ranging from 50 percent to 100 percent. Oman implements a 5-percent value-added tax (VAT) on most goods and services, consistent with the GCC Unified Agreement.

Companies can request advance rulings based on tariff classification, customs valuation, or rules of origin through ROP Customs.

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Medical Devices in Kenya

Medical Devices in Kenya

In Kenya, medical equipment must meet the following certification and standard requirements to ensure safety and quality in healthcare delivery.

1. Kenya Bureau of Standards (KEBS) Certification:
 The KEBS is the national standards body of Kenya and is responsible for developing and implementing standards for various products, including medical equipment. The KEBS certification is mandatory for certain medical equipment, such as diagnostic imaging equipment, to ensure their safety and compliance with the relevant Kenyan standards.

2. Pharmacy and Poisons Board (PPB) Approval:
 The PPB is responsible for regulating the importation, exportation, manufacture, and sale of drugs, food, cosmetics, and medical devices in Kenya. Its approval is mandatory for all medical equipment in Kenya, including imported and locally manufactured equipment.

3. International Standards:
 The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) and the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) develop international standards for various medical equipment. These standards ensure that the equipment is safe, reliable, and of good quality.

4. CE Marking:
 The CE Marking is a certification mark that indicates compliance with health, safety, and environmental protection standards for products sold within the European Economic Area (EEA). Medical equipment with the CE Marking is considered to comply with the relevant European standards and can be marketed in Kenya.

Registration Process:

  • ● Fill up the application form and submit the filled-up required document together with all required documents.
    ● Pay the appropriate fees as advised by the board’s officers.
    ● Once your application is approved you will receive a Certificate evidencing the registration of the medical device.
    ● An applicant for a manufacturer outside Kenya must file evidence of Power of Attorney from the manufacturer which authorizes him to speak for his principal on all matters relating to the application. The application process usually takes a period of three months.
  • Classification:
     Class A,B,C,D

Documents Required:
● Common Submission Dossier Template (CSDT)
● Letter of Authorization for Authorized Representative
● Device Labelling
● Pre-verification certificate for Notified Body
● IFU, Patient information leaflet, promotional material
● Certificate of Analysis
● Information on sterilization methods and validation standard
● Regulatory Approval from the country of origin
● QMS certificate
Additional for Class B, C and D
● Essential Principles Checklist
● Design verification and validation
● Risk Analysis
● Clinical Evidence

Standards
 ISO 13485, ISO 14971, and IEC 60601.

Registration Timeline:
 Around 9-12 months

License Validity:
 5 years

Import Value
Key information about Kenya Imports: Medicinal and Pharmaceutical Product
● Kenya Imports: Medicinal and Pharmaceutical Product was reported at 195,063.899 USD th in Dec 2021
● This records an increase from the previous number of 127,959.759 USD th for Dec 2020
● Kenya Imports: Medicinal and Pharmaceutical Product data is updated yearly, averaging 57,329.693 USD th from Dec 1995 to 2021, with 27 observations
● The data reached an all-time high of 195,063.899 USD th in 2021 and a record low of 16,843.881 USD th in 2000
● Kenya Imports: Medicinal and Pharmaceutical Product data remains active status in CEIC and is reported by United Nations Conference on Trade and Development
● The data is categorized under World Trend Plus’s Association: Pharmaceutical and Biotechnology Sector – Table RT.UNCTAD.MPP:
Medicinal and Pharmaceutical Product: Imports Value by Individual Economies and Territories

Top Importers
Prodigy Pharmaceuticals Limited
Philips East Africa Limited
Coptic hospital
AllMed Medical Supplies Limited
SurgiPharm Limited

Competitors
1. Megascope Healthcare Ltd
 Megascope Healthcare is widely recognised as the most reliable supplier of quality medical equipment in Kenya, offering a wide selection of quality and affordable medical equipment.
Contact: +254 722 299 097
Email: info@megascopekenya.com

2. Phoenix Equipment Ltd
 The company is registered in Kenya as a supplier of medical equipment and solutions for the hospital field and homecare use with efficient distribution channels to supply efficiently across Eastern Africa.
Location: Visions Plaza, Mombasa Road, Nairobi
Contact: 0728 853 905
Email: info@phoenixequipltd.com

3. Toda Medical Supplies
 Toda Ltd is regionally recognised as distributors of medical equipment and devices for Intervention radiology, ENT, neurosurgery, cardiovascular, urology and general surgery.
Contacts: +254 723 086 338, +254 20 528 9177
Email: info@todamedicalsupplies.co.ke

4. Barfield Hospital Supplies Ltd
 It supplies medical equipment & surgical instruments. It also manufactures custom-designed and standard hospital furniture.
Contact: +254 020 248 5585/ 020 2699104
Email: info@barfieldltd.com

5. Nairobi X-ray supplies Ltd
 It is mainly involved in radiological, surgical, dialysis, hearing implants and endoscopy supplies of quality equipment from Japan.
Contact: +254 733 512 802, +254 703 700 766
Email: info@nxsltd.com

6. Medmax Ltd
 Medmax is a leading supplier of diagnostic products, hospital furniture, walking aids and laboratory equipment.
Location: Industrial Area, Nairobi
Contact: +254 733 589 509/ +254 705 071 699

7. Angelica Medical Supplies Ltd
Location: 1st floor, Regent Court, Hurlingham, Nairobi
Contact: +254 020 265 4721
Email: info@angelicamedical.com

8. Bioscope Laboratory Supplies Ltd
 The company supplies laboratory chemicals, consumables and equipment across the East African region.
Location: Nabro Towers, Ngara, Nairobi
Contact: 0720 537 146
Email: sales@bioscope.co.ke

9. Promech Enterprise Limited
Location: Green House Building, Along Ngong Road
Contacts: +254 723 540 960
Email: info@promechkenya.com

10. Omsai Distributors Limited
 The company supplies medical devices and equipment to private, public and non-governmental institutions in Kenya. It supplies equipment such as hospital beds, pediatric beds, medical carts, delivery beds and blood transfusion sets.
Contacts: +254 784 705 606, +254 705 705 606

Picture1

Kenya

Picture1

Kenya

 Kenya is a country in Eastern Africa bordering the Indian Ocean and Lake Victoria. Neighboring countries include Ethiopia, Somalia, South Sudan, Tanzania, and Uganda. Unique Kenyan physiography, from highlands to glaciers, supports abundant and varied wildlife of scientific and economic value. The government system is a republic; the chief of state and head of government is the president. Kenya has a mixed economic system which includes a variety of private freedom, combined with centralized economic planning and government regulation. Kenya is a member of the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA) and the East African Community (EAC).

Population Population Growth Rate Age Dependency Ratio Urban Population Infant Mortality Rate Life Expectancy at Birth
18,754,440 (2020)
1.292 annual % (2020)
58.849 % of working-age population (2020)
57.671 % of total (2020)
9.3 per 1,000 live births (2019)
73.18 years (2019)

Business Partners

Importers

Select your indicators

Value exported in 2022 (USD thousand)

Trade balance 2022 (USD thousand)

Share in Kenya’s exports (%)

World

7,390,793

-13,736,958

100

Uganda

822,915

487,398

11.1

United States of America

679,333

-133,469

9.2

Netherlands

591,234

318,770

8

Pakistan

544,272

319,873

7.4

Tanzania, United Republic of

484,305

32,022

6.6

United Kingdom

378,289

83,126

5.1

United Arab Emirates

373,679

-3,084,590

5.1

Rwanda

341,640

311,455

4.6

China

233,838

-3,610,857

3.2

Egypt

227,178

-145,979

3.1

 

Exporters

Select your indicators

Value imported in 2022 (USD thousand)

Trade balance 2022 (USD thousand)

Share in Kenya’s imports (%)

World

21,127,751

-13,736,958

100

China

3,844,695

-3,610,857

18.2

United Arab Emirates

3,458,269

-3,084,590

16.4

India

2,123,477

-2,055,097

10.1

Saudi Arabia

1,035,879

-930,707

4.9

Malaysia

1,023,761

-999,426

4.8

Japan

829,578

-778,762

3.9

United States of America

812,802

-133,469

3.8

South Africa

518,627

-460,469

2.5

Tanzania, United Republic of

452,283

32,022

2.1

Korea, Republic of

426,648

-374,600

2

Culture

Kenyans culture is very communal in nature. Kenyans share everything from clothes, food, and even space! At home, personal items are often shared with every member of the family. In most families, they don’t understand the concept of private time and it’s uncommon to stay alone in one’s room for long periods of time except to sleep.

Kenyan culture is a way of life that blends tradition with modernity. Traditionally, most Kenyans will not engage in direct communication, but instead, use non-explicit techniques in passing over their intended message. However, the style of communication depends directly on the level of intimacy between each person.

Kenyans people are quite sociable and friendly. When they meet, they hug, shake hands, and stand close to each other. It’s not easy to get privacy since people are always talking and chatting. It is considered rude to stand away from others. Disagreement with others is seen as a sign of disrespect, especially with elders. It is considered ill-mannered to shout or speak with a high tone.

Taboos

Losing ones temper and shouting is considered highly rude. Most disputes are resolved by using humor, or they might simmer under the surface for long periods without confrontation.  It’s best to remain polite and smiling, even if frustrated.

Kenyans tend to dress in a conservative manner with an emphasis on appearing smart and well dressed as a matter of pride. To look sloppy or wear revealing or damaged clothes would mean that a foreigner would instantly lose a degree of respect amongst Kenyans.

Economic Index

 GDP

101,013,726.53

 

GDP, PPP

246,068,248.30

 

GDP per capita, PPP

4,577.9

GDP per capita

1,878.6

 

Gini index

40.8

 

 Inflation, consumer prices

5.4

Social Media Stats in Kenya

Facebook = 36.73%

YouTube = 21.96%

Twitter = 20.03%

Instagram = 10.08%

Pinterest = 9.09%

LinkedIn = 0.96%

Browser Market Share in Kenya

Chrome = 60.96%

Opera = 31.13%

Safari = 2.55%

Firefox = 1.87%

Edge = 1.63%

Samsung Internet = 1.18%

Natural Resources

Mineral resources in Kenya include gold, iron ore, talc, soda ash, some rare earth minerals, and gemstones. Gold is mostly restricted to the westernmost part of the country, while areas around Mombasa host limestone, niobium, iron ore, gemstone, and self.

The mining and quarrying sector in Kenya accounts for less than 1 percent of gross domestic product, with the majority being contributed by the soda ash operation at Lake Magadi in south-central Kenya. In 2010, Kenya’s share of the world’s soda ash production amounted to 4%. Cement, Fluorspar, and Petroleum refining were the other mining and mineral processing activities undertaken by the mining sector.

Standards

A Kenyan standard is a document established by consensus and approved by KEBS that provides for common and repeated use, rules, guidelines, or characteristics for products and services, as well as related processes or production methods, aimed at the achievement of the opimum degree of order in a given context.

Kenya applies a comparative ‘standard’ to all products of services. Kenya standards are classified into six categories: 
1. Glossaries or Definitions of terminology
2. Dimensional Standards
3. Performance Standards
4. Standards Methods of Test
5. Codes of Practice
6. Measurement Standards
These standards are developed by technical committees whose membership includes representatives of various interest groups such as producers, consumers, technologist, research organizations, and testing organizations, in both the privet and public sectors.

Some of the departments include the Food and Agriculture Department which is responsible for the development of standards covering food technologies, food safety, fertilizers, agricultural produce, livestock products, poultry products, etc.

The Chemical Department is responsible for the development of standards covering soaps, detergents, paints, pesticides, stationery, and related equipment and all products based on chemical formulations. Others include the services standards department, and the engineering department.

Service Standards Department is responsible for the development of standards in the service industry such as tourism, hotels, transport, education, social activities, etc. These standards are aimed at addressing the evolving needs in the service sector and represent a growth area.

Engineering Department is responsible for the development of standards in covering civil engineering, electro-technology, information technology, renewable energy, textile engineering and mechanical engineering. Standards Information and Resource Section is responsible for the maintenance and availability of standards information, library, WTO NEP, and sales of standards.

Trade Agreements

Multilateral Trade System (MTS):
The World Trade Organization (WTO) is the primary international organization dealing with the global rules of trade between nations. Kenya has been a member of the WTO since its inception in January 1995. The WTO’s 10th Ministerial Conference was held in Nairobi, Kenya in December 2015. The Conference culminated in the adoption of the “Nairobi Package”, a series of six ministerial decisions on agriculture, cotton, and issues related to least-developed countries (LDCs). The latest EAC Trade Policy Review by WTO was scheduled for March 2019.

African Continental Free Trade Area (ACFTA):
Kenya was among nearly 50 African nations signed a deal to create the ACFTA in Kigali, Rwanda, on March 21, 2-18, marking a historic milestone in the economic integration of the continent. The formation of a free trade area spanning Africa creates a single market of 1.2bn people with a combined gross domestic product of more than $2 trillion (UNCTAD).

U.S – EAC Trade and Investment Framework Agreement (TIFA):
The United States signed Trade and Investment Framework Agreements (TIFA) with the East African Community (EAC) in 2008, and with the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA) at https://ustr.gov/countries-regions/africa/regional-economic-communities-rec/common-market-eastern-and-southern-africa-comesa in 2021. Kenya is a member of both regional organizations. The Office of the U.S.

Regional Markets:
Kenya is a member of the East African Community (EAC) with a population of approximately 177 million across the countries of Burundi, Kenya, Rwanda, South Sudan and Tanzania.

ACP/Cotonou Partnership Agreement:
Exports from Kenya entering the European Union are entitled to duty reductions and freedom from all quota restrictions. Trade preferences include duty-free entry of all industrial products as well as a wide range of agricultural products including beef, fish, dairy products, cereals, fresh and processed fruits, and vegetables.

African Growth and Opportunity Act (AGOA):
Kenya qualifies for duty free access until 2025 to the U.S. market under the African Growth and Opportunity Act. Some of Kenya’s major products that qualify for export under AGOA include textiles, apparels, and handicrafts.

Generalized System of Preferences (GSP):
Under the Generalized System of Preferences, a wide range of Kenya’s manufactured products are entitled to preferential duty treatment in the Australia, Austria, Canada, Finland, Japan, New Zealand, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland, other European countries, and the United States. In addition, no quantitative restrictions are applicable to Kenyan exports on any of the 3,000-plus items currently eligible for GSP treatment. Additional information is available at United Nations Conference on Trade and Development.

Bilateral Trade Agreement:
Kenya has signed bilateral trade agreements with several countries: Argentina, Bangladesh, Bulgaria, China, Comoros, Congo (DRC), Djibouti, Egypt, Hungary, India, Iraq, Lesotho, Liberia, Netherlands, Nigeria, Pakistan, Poland, Romania, Russia, Rwanda, Somalia, South Korea, Swaziland, Tanzania, Thailand, Zambia, and Zimbabwe.

U.S – Kenya Free Trade Agreement:
In July 2020, the United States and Kenya entered into FTA negotiations to seek a high standard agreement that will also complement regional integration efforts within the EAC and ACFTA. Negotiations were paused at the end of 2020, pending a review of the status of negotiations by the incoming USTR leadership. In addition to the launch of trade negotiations, the United States and Kenya agreed on a Strategic Cooperation Framework to provide technical assistance and trade capacity building in Kenya with the aim of maximizing Kenya’s utilization of the AGOA trade benefits for the remaining years of the preference program, which is scheduled to expire in 2025.

U.S. – Kenya Commercial Memorandum of Understanding (MoU):
In parallel to FTA negotiations, the United States and Kenya intend to intensify efforts to bolster commercial cooperation under the bilateral commercial Memorandum of Understanding signed in June 2018, and to work together to identify and prioritize trade and investment opportunities in strategic sectors including energy, health, digital economy, infrastructure, manufacturing, and agriculture.

Import Tariffs

Kenya applies tariffs based on the international harmonized system (HS) of product classification and applies duties and tariffs of the EAC Common External Tariff. Customs duties can be levied at rates between 0% and 100%, with an average of 25%. However, sensitive items attract duty higher than 25% (the sensitive items are listed in the schedule 2 of the EAC Common external tariff). Excise duties de[end on whether the imported item it excisable or not. The rates are prescribed under the Excise Duty Act 2015. Imports into Kenya are subject to a standard VAT rate of 16%, levied on the sum of the CIF value, duty, and other applicable taxes. An import declaration fee of 3.5% and railway development levy of 2%.

Pistachio

Pistachio

Origin of Pistachio

 Pistachio, (Pistacia vera), small tree of the cashew family (Anacardiaceous) and its edible seeds, grown in dry lands in warm or temperate climates. The pistachio tree is believed to be indigenous to Iran. It is widely cultivated from Afghanistan to the Mediterranean region and in California.

 The pistachio tree has wide-spreading branches but rarely exceeds 9 meters (30 feet) in height. Each leaf has one to five pairs of thick, wide, leathery, pinnate leaflets. The plants are usually dioecious (bearing either male or female flowers) and are pollinated largely by wind. Borne in clusters, the white drupe fruits are 1.5 to 2 cm (0.6 to 0.8 inch) long and tend to split at one side without discharging the seed. The “nut” is a greenish kernel enclosed in a thin, tightly adhering, reddish skin. The single, solid kernels have a pleasing mild resinous flavor. To ensure pollination and good yield, male trees are interplanted with female in a ratio of 1:5 or 1:6.

 Pistachio history in Iran:
 Emergence of pistachio in Iran back to HAKHAMANESHIAN period about 4000 to 5000 years ago. It seems that wild forest of pistachio has been cultivated about 3000 to 4000 years ago. Then, it has exported to the other parts of the world particularly Mediterranean nearby countries. The first origin of pistachio is located about Kerman province. After the Islam, Qom has been renowned as the most important region for pistachio cultivation. Its history respect to first half of the Hijri century and the first writings about Damghan pistachio, Semnan and Qazvin back to seventh century. On the other hand, Kerman Pistachio back to twelfth century.

Maintaining conditions:

 Since the shell of pistachio does split when it has ripened to expose the nutmeat, this nut has a minimized shelf life (Filippone, 2017). When a farmer wants to store pistachio after harvesting in for a few days, it is recommended that the farmers should put the pistachio in resealable bags and keep them in the pantry (Filippone, 2017). Besides, when the farmer wants to store pistachio nuts for a longer period, it is recommended that the producer should store this nut in a container that is airtight and keep it in a freezer or refrigerator (Filippone, 2017). Moreover, unshelled nuts can be stored for more than three months in the freezer or refrigerator. To minimize condensation when thawing, the nuts are supposed to be placed in a plastic bag (Filippone, 2017). Nevertheless, pistachios that are shelled can be kept in the refrigerator for about three months, but should not be placed in a freezer. In addition, for one to restore pistachios that lack their crunch, they are supposed to be toasted in a 200F oven for about 8 to 18 minutes (Filippone, 2017).

Shelled
Storing period must be maximum 12 months after the harvest
Low humidity levels must be maintained at 50-60%
Storage areas must be free from odors 
Storages must have license for operating

 In-shell
Storing period must be maximum 24 months after the harvest
Low humidity levels must be maintained at 50-60% 
Storage areas must be free from odors 
Storages must have license for operating

 The most important postharvest operations of pistachio nuts including handling, transportation, green hull removal, dehydration, bulk storage and packaging of pistachios were studied. Results showed that air temperature had pronounced effect on drying time and air velocity didn’t any significant effect on drying time. The entire drying process occurred in falling rate period and constant rate period was not observed. The optimum conditions for bulk storage of pistachio nuts were between 0 and 10 °C and relative humidity (RH) of 65-70 % or kept at higher than 10 °C (e.g. 15 °C) and less than 32 % RH, and monolayer moisture content had the longest shelf life due to the minimum changes in its lipid quality factors. The higher temperatures and longer storage times will accelerate deteriorative reactions in pistachio nuts especially on fat component and nylon under vacuum is the best packages for pistachio nuts among other packaging materials were studied in this research.

Pantry: 1-2 weeks                                                                                            Refrigerator: 3 months                                                                                               Freezer: 12 months

Competitive advantage:

Pros:
Better taste and flavor in Iran pistachios
Packaging diversity
Ability to burst at high temperatures (without color and taste altering)
The possibility of greater kernel percentage

Cons:
– Reduction of production in 2019 about one-quarter of the previous year due to climate condition and underutilizing cultivation year.
– Water scarcity, drought, water salinity and seasonal freezing in addition to production resources limitations and the lack of financial deficiencies.
– Weakness in warehouses systems, the lack of coherence in pistachio problem management
– Executing conventional method in production and trade.
– The scarcity of agreement purchasing
– Underestimating of production quality and health situation particularly in terms if afolatoxine
– The lack of strategic storage mechanism and product regulating among productive and nonproductive years.
– Low efficiency of production (production in area unit). Iran is lower than world efficiency by about 40%

Suggestions:
Standardizing of pistachios to compete with highest quality (USA) in world.
– Stabilizing of world currency
– Planning for reducing the transportation cost and increasing the shipping lifespan
– Decreasing the finished price

Threats:
– Reducing the world market price of pistachio

kazaqestan

Kazakhstan

Kazakhstan

 Kazakhstan is a landlocked, transcontinental country located in Central Asia and Eastern Europe. It is bordered by China, Kyrgyzstan, Russia, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan. The terrain extends west to east from the Caspian Sea to the Altay Mountains and north to south from the plains of Western Siberia to the deserts of Central Asia. The government system is a republic with the authoritarian presidential rule and little power outside the executive branch. The chief of state is the president, and the head of government is the prime minister. Kazakhstan has a mixed economic system which includes a variety of private freedom, combined with centralized economic planning and government regulation. Kazakhstan is a member of the Eurasian Economic Union (EAEU).

– Capital City: Astana (+6 GMT)
– Currency: Tenge (KZT)
– Languages: Kazakh (official, Qazaq) 83.1% (understand spoken language) and trilingual (Kazakh, Russian, English) 22.3% (2017 est.); Russian (official, used in everyday business, designated the “language of interethnic communication”) 94.4% (understand spoken language) (2009 est.)
– Religions: Muslim 70.2%, Christian 26.2% (mainly Russian Orthodox), other 0.2%, atheist 2.8%, unspecified 0.5% (2009 est.)

Population Population Growth Rate Age Dependency Ratio Urban Population Infant Mortality Rate Life Expectancy at Birth
18,754,440 (2020)
1.292 annual % (2020)
58.849 % of working-age population (2020)
57.671 % of total (2020)
9.3 per 1,000 live births (2019)
73.18 years (2019)

MAJOR CITIES

Almaty

Astana

Shymkent

Karaganda

Kazakh culture: Customs and traditions

 The Kazakh people are rich in traditions. From birth through old age and death, every step of their lives has historically been marked with celebration. Even their funeral ceremonies have their own special symbolism.

 Unfortunately, many rich and interesting traditions and customs of the Kazakh people have been forgotten throughout the past century. Real sovereignty is just now being reestablished in Kazakhstan due to the process of democratization. These abandoned traditions are just now being rediscovered by the Kazakh people. These traditions include being respectful to old people; being patriotic to the motherland; being honest; and learning to love mankind.

TABOOS

Putting your thumb in between your middle and index finger while making a fist is an obscene gesture.
Hooking two fingers together is an obscene gesture as well.

COMMUNICATION STYLE

An indirect style of communication tends to be more effective than being overly direct, although Soviet influenced bluntness still remains strong—your weight and level of attractiveness tend to be fair game for comments.
Good topics of conversation when establishing a personal relationship include art, food, drink, and sports. Avoid politics, religion, and ethnicity if possible.
Kazakh suggestions and imperatives don’t translate well, and you may find someone giving you dog commands (Sit! Speak! Eat!) or mistake the difference between a command and a suggestion. It’s usually best to ask follow-up questions when you think someone might want you to do something.

DRESS

– For Men: Conservative suits or tie and jacket in the cities and when dealing with government officials.
– For Women: Stylish, yet somewhat conservative business suits or dresses and blouses are appropriate.

Shoes are very important. Kazakh men tend to wear pointy, dandy-ish shoes. Women wear heels, often stilettos. Whatever shoes you wear, it is best to make sure they’re clean and polished.

Weather and Climate

Kazakhstan experiences an extreme continental climate, with long, hot summers and cold winters. Winter in the north of the country is long and cold – in some years the temperatures reached – 52°C (Nur-Sultan), but there are also thaws up to 5°C. The shortest season in the north is spring, which lasts 1.5 months, while summer lasts 3 months and winter extends from October to April. Snow primarily falls in November but can continue through April. Due to its great distance from the ocean, Kazakhstan has a highly continental climate and large intraday and annual fluctuations in temperature. This means that temperatures in the winter months (December to February) are extremely cold, with national averages between -9°C and -12°C, whereas summers are hot, with average temperatures of 22°C to 23°C in June, July and August. Precipitation is low throughout the year, with average monthly levels of between 14 millimeters (mm) and 30 mm, although flooding can occur during spring due to increased rain and the thawing of winter snow.

Natural resources

Kazakhstan is very rich in mineral resources. Oil, coal, various ore and non-metallic deposits are the priceless treasure of the republic. Some of these mineral resources make Kazakhstan famous in the world. They include chrome iron ore deposits, polymetallic deposits, copper, tungsten, molybdenum and uranium ores.

Economic Index

GDP (current US$) – Kazakhstan

190,814,274.23

GDP, PPP (current international $) – Kazakhstan

543,473,691.25

GDP per capita, PPP (current international $) – Kazakhstan

28,600.0

GDP per capita (current US$) – Kazakhstan

10,041.5

Gini index – Kazakhstan

27.8

Inflation, consumer prices (annual %) – Kazakhstan

6.7

Internet Penetration rate in Kazakhstan

Internet use in Kazakhstan in 2022
There were 16.41 million internet users in Kazakhstan in January 2022.
Kazakhstan’s internet penetration rate stood at 85.9 percent of the total population at the start of 2022.

Social Media Stats in Kazakhastan

YouTube = 26.29%

Facebook = 19.38%

Pinterest = 17.29%

Instagram = 12.53%

Twitter = 11.57%

VKontakte = 8.64%

Browser Market Share in Kazakhastan

Chrome = 65.9%

Safari = 15.55%

Yandex Browser = 6.05%

Opera = 3.93%

Firefox = 2.63%

Samsung Internet = 2.59%

Standards for Trade

 Certification and/or conformity assessment procedures are part of the national system of technical regulation.  To bring Kazakhstan standards more in line with international standards, in 2007 Kazakhstan adopted several laws and amendments to the existing Law on Technical Regulations including such laws as Safety of Chemical Products, Safety of Food Products, Safety of Toys, and Safety of Equipment and Machinery.  The national file of standards now includes 73,000 rules and norms, including 35,347 representing international standards (International Organization for Standardization, European Standards, International Electrotechnical Commission, etc.) and 2,246 U.S. standards (American National Standards Institute).  These standards are applied across all economic sectors.

 Under current regulations, safety standards acquire the status of normative documents, mandatory for consideration, while quality standards will gradually become voluntary.  The functions of governmental bodies will be limited to dealing with safety control issues.  Technical regulations will acquire the status of laws and will be intended to ensure the safety of life and health of consumers.  Other standards relating to quality of goods will be given a voluntary status, and manufacturers will no longer be forced to follow outdated requirements dictating a shape, or color of goods as it was under previous legislation.

Import Tariffs

 As part of its WTO accession in 2015, Kazakhstan agreed to lower 3,512 tariff rates gradually, to an average of 6.1 percent in 2020.  Tariffs on agricultural products will see the largest reduction, from 16.7 percent to an average of 7.6%. In January 2016, Kazakhstan began applying lower tariff rates to certain food products, automobiles, airplanes, railway wagons, lumber, alcoholic beverages, pharmaceuticals, freezers, and jewelry.

Trade Agreements

 Kazakhstan became a WTO member on November 30, 2015.  In addition, Kazakhstan officially entered a Customs Union with Russia and Belarus on July 1, 2010, eventually becoming a founding member of the Eurasian Economic Union (EAEU), which was created on May 29, 2014, between Kazakhstan, Belarus, and Russia.  (The Kyrgyz Republic and Armenia joined in 2015.)  Since that time, Kazakhstan’s trade policy has been heavily influenced by EAEU regulations.  For example, while Kazakhstan asserts that EAEU agreements comply with WTO standards, since joining the Customs Union, Kazakhstan has doubled its average import tariff and introduced annual tariff-rate quotas (TRQs) on poultry and beef.