Pistachio

Pistachio

Origin of Pistachio

 Pistachio, (Pistacia vera), small tree of the cashew family (Anacardiaceous) and its edible seeds, grown in dry lands in warm or temperate climates. The pistachio tree is believed to be indigenous to Iran. It is widely cultivated from Afghanistan to the Mediterranean region and in California.

 The pistachio tree has wide-spreading branches but rarely exceeds 9 meters (30 feet) in height. Each leaf has one to five pairs of thick, wide, leathery, pinnate leaflets. The plants are usually dioecious (bearing either male or female flowers) and are pollinated largely by wind. Borne in clusters, the white drupe fruits are 1.5 to 2 cm (0.6 to 0.8 inch) long and tend to split at one side without discharging the seed. The “nut” is a greenish kernel enclosed in a thin, tightly adhering, reddish skin. The single, solid kernels have a pleasing mild resinous flavor. To ensure pollination and good yield, male trees are interplanted with female in a ratio of 1:5 or 1:6.

 Pistachio history in Iran:
 Emergence of pistachio in Iran back to HAKHAMANESHIAN period about 4000 to 5000 years ago. It seems that wild forest of pistachio has been cultivated about 3000 to 4000 years ago. Then, it has exported to the other parts of the world particularly Mediterranean nearby countries. The first origin of pistachio is located about Kerman province. After the Islam, Qom has been renowned as the most important region for pistachio cultivation. Its history respect to first half of the Hijri century and the first writings about Damghan pistachio, Semnan and Qazvin back to seventh century. On the other hand, Kerman Pistachio back to twelfth century.

Maintaining conditions:

 Since the shell of pistachio does split when it has ripened to expose the nutmeat, this nut has a minimized shelf life (Filippone, 2017). When a farmer wants to store pistachio after harvesting in for a few days, it is recommended that the farmers should put the pistachio in resealable bags and keep them in the pantry (Filippone, 2017). Besides, when the farmer wants to store pistachio nuts for a longer period, it is recommended that the producer should store this nut in a container that is airtight and keep it in a freezer or refrigerator (Filippone, 2017). Moreover, unshelled nuts can be stored for more than three months in the freezer or refrigerator. To minimize condensation when thawing, the nuts are supposed to be placed in a plastic bag (Filippone, 2017). Nevertheless, pistachios that are shelled can be kept in the refrigerator for about three months, but should not be placed in a freezer. In addition, for one to restore pistachios that lack their crunch, they are supposed to be toasted in a 200F oven for about 8 to 18 minutes (Filippone, 2017).

Shelled
Storing period must be maximum 12 months after the harvest
Low humidity levels must be maintained at 50-60%
Storage areas must be free from odors 
Storages must have license for operating

 In-shell
Storing period must be maximum 24 months after the harvest
Low humidity levels must be maintained at 50-60% 
Storage areas must be free from odors 
Storages must have license for operating

 The most important postharvest operations of pistachio nuts including handling, transportation, green hull removal, dehydration, bulk storage and packaging of pistachios were studied. Results showed that air temperature had pronounced effect on drying time and air velocity didn’t any significant effect on drying time. The entire drying process occurred in falling rate period and constant rate period was not observed. The optimum conditions for bulk storage of pistachio nuts were between 0 and 10 °C and relative humidity (RH) of 65-70 % or kept at higher than 10 °C (e.g. 15 °C) and less than 32 % RH, and monolayer moisture content had the longest shelf life due to the minimum changes in its lipid quality factors. The higher temperatures and longer storage times will accelerate deteriorative reactions in pistachio nuts especially on fat component and nylon under vacuum is the best packages for pistachio nuts among other packaging materials were studied in this research.

Pantry: 1-2 weeks                                                                                            Refrigerator: 3 months                                                                                               Freezer: 12 months

Competitive advantage:

Pros:
Better taste and flavor in Iran pistachios
Packaging diversity
Ability to burst at high temperatures (without color and taste altering)
The possibility of greater kernel percentage

Cons:
– Reduction of production in 2019 about one-quarter of the previous year due to climate condition and underutilizing cultivation year.
– Water scarcity, drought, water salinity and seasonal freezing in addition to production resources limitations and the lack of financial deficiencies.
– Weakness in warehouses systems, the lack of coherence in pistachio problem management
– Executing conventional method in production and trade.
– The scarcity of agreement purchasing
– Underestimating of production quality and health situation particularly in terms if afolatoxine
– The lack of strategic storage mechanism and product regulating among productive and nonproductive years.
– Low efficiency of production (production in area unit). Iran is lower than world efficiency by about 40%

Suggestions:
Standardizing of pistachios to compete with highest quality (USA) in world.
– Stabilizing of world currency
– Planning for reducing the transportation cost and increasing the shipping lifespan
– Decreasing the finished price

Threats:
– Reducing the world market price of pistachio

kazaqestan

Kazakhstan

Kazakhstan

 Kazakhstan is a landlocked, transcontinental country located in Central Asia and Eastern Europe. It is bordered by China, Kyrgyzstan, Russia, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan. The terrain extends west to east from the Caspian Sea to the Altay Mountains and north to south from the plains of Western Siberia to the deserts of Central Asia. The government system is a republic with the authoritarian presidential rule and little power outside the executive branch. The chief of state is the president, and the head of government is the prime minister. Kazakhstan has a mixed economic system which includes a variety of private freedom, combined with centralized economic planning and government regulation. Kazakhstan is a member of the Eurasian Economic Union (EAEU).

– Capital City: Astana (+6 GMT)
– Currency: Tenge (KZT)
– Languages: Kazakh (official, Qazaq) 83.1% (understand spoken language) and trilingual (Kazakh, Russian, English) 22.3% (2017 est.); Russian (official, used in everyday business, designated the “language of interethnic communication”) 94.4% (understand spoken language) (2009 est.)
– Religions: Muslim 70.2%, Christian 26.2% (mainly Russian Orthodox), other 0.2%, atheist 2.8%, unspecified 0.5% (2009 est.)

Population Population Growth Rate Age Dependency Ratio Urban Population Infant Mortality Rate Life Expectancy at Birth
18,754,440 (2020)
1.292 annual % (2020)
58.849 % of working-age population (2020)
57.671 % of total (2020)
9.3 per 1,000 live births (2019)
73.18 years (2019)

MAJOR CITIES

Almaty

Astana

Shymkent

Karaganda

Kazakh culture: Customs and traditions

 The Kazakh people are rich in traditions. From birth through old age and death, every step of their lives has historically been marked with celebration. Even their funeral ceremonies have their own special symbolism.

 Unfortunately, many rich and interesting traditions and customs of the Kazakh people have been forgotten throughout the past century. Real sovereignty is just now being reestablished in Kazakhstan due to the process of democratization. These abandoned traditions are just now being rediscovered by the Kazakh people. These traditions include being respectful to old people; being patriotic to the motherland; being honest; and learning to love mankind.

TABOOS

Putting your thumb in between your middle and index finger while making a fist is an obscene gesture.
Hooking two fingers together is an obscene gesture as well.

COMMUNICATION STYLE

An indirect style of communication tends to be more effective than being overly direct, although Soviet influenced bluntness still remains strong—your weight and level of attractiveness tend to be fair game for comments.
Good topics of conversation when establishing a personal relationship include art, food, drink, and sports. Avoid politics, religion, and ethnicity if possible.
Kazakh suggestions and imperatives don’t translate well, and you may find someone giving you dog commands (Sit! Speak! Eat!) or mistake the difference between a command and a suggestion. It’s usually best to ask follow-up questions when you think someone might want you to do something.

DRESS

– For Men: Conservative suits or tie and jacket in the cities and when dealing with government officials.
– For Women: Stylish, yet somewhat conservative business suits or dresses and blouses are appropriate.

Shoes are very important. Kazakh men tend to wear pointy, dandy-ish shoes. Women wear heels, often stilettos. Whatever shoes you wear, it is best to make sure they’re clean and polished.

Weather and Climate

Kazakhstan experiences an extreme continental climate, with long, hot summers and cold winters. Winter in the north of the country is long and cold – in some years the temperatures reached – 52°C (Nur-Sultan), but there are also thaws up to 5°C. The shortest season in the north is spring, which lasts 1.5 months, while summer lasts 3 months and winter extends from October to April. Snow primarily falls in November but can continue through April. Due to its great distance from the ocean, Kazakhstan has a highly continental climate and large intraday and annual fluctuations in temperature. This means that temperatures in the winter months (December to February) are extremely cold, with national averages between -9°C and -12°C, whereas summers are hot, with average temperatures of 22°C to 23°C in June, July and August. Precipitation is low throughout the year, with average monthly levels of between 14 millimeters (mm) and 30 mm, although flooding can occur during spring due to increased rain and the thawing of winter snow.

Natural resources

Kazakhstan is very rich in mineral resources. Oil, coal, various ore and non-metallic deposits are the priceless treasure of the republic. Some of these mineral resources make Kazakhstan famous in the world. They include chrome iron ore deposits, polymetallic deposits, copper, tungsten, molybdenum and uranium ores.

Economic Index

GDP (current US$) – Kazakhstan

190,814,274.23

GDP, PPP (current international $) – Kazakhstan

543,473,691.25

GDP per capita, PPP (current international $) – Kazakhstan

28,600.0

GDP per capita (current US$) – Kazakhstan

10,041.5

Gini index – Kazakhstan

27.8

Inflation, consumer prices (annual %) – Kazakhstan

6.7

Internet Penetration rate in Kazakhstan

Internet use in Kazakhstan in 2022
There were 16.41 million internet users in Kazakhstan in January 2022.
Kazakhstan’s internet penetration rate stood at 85.9 percent of the total population at the start of 2022.

Social Media Stats in Kazakhastan

YouTube = 26.29%

Facebook = 19.38%

Pinterest = 17.29%

Instagram = 12.53%

Twitter = 11.57%

VKontakte = 8.64%

Browser Market Share in Kazakhastan

Chrome = 65.9%

Safari = 15.55%

Yandex Browser = 6.05%

Opera = 3.93%

Firefox = 2.63%

Samsung Internet = 2.59%

Standards for Trade

 Certification and/or conformity assessment procedures are part of the national system of technical regulation.  To bring Kazakhstan standards more in line with international standards, in 2007 Kazakhstan adopted several laws and amendments to the existing Law on Technical Regulations including such laws as Safety of Chemical Products, Safety of Food Products, Safety of Toys, and Safety of Equipment and Machinery.  The national file of standards now includes 73,000 rules and norms, including 35,347 representing international standards (International Organization for Standardization, European Standards, International Electrotechnical Commission, etc.) and 2,246 U.S. standards (American National Standards Institute).  These standards are applied across all economic sectors.

 Under current regulations, safety standards acquire the status of normative documents, mandatory for consideration, while quality standards will gradually become voluntary.  The functions of governmental bodies will be limited to dealing with safety control issues.  Technical regulations will acquire the status of laws and will be intended to ensure the safety of life and health of consumers.  Other standards relating to quality of goods will be given a voluntary status, and manufacturers will no longer be forced to follow outdated requirements dictating a shape, or color of goods as it was under previous legislation.

Import Tariffs

 As part of its WTO accession in 2015, Kazakhstan agreed to lower 3,512 tariff rates gradually, to an average of 6.1 percent in 2020.  Tariffs on agricultural products will see the largest reduction, from 16.7 percent to an average of 7.6%. In January 2016, Kazakhstan began applying lower tariff rates to certain food products, automobiles, airplanes, railway wagons, lumber, alcoholic beverages, pharmaceuticals, freezers, and jewelry.

Trade Agreements

 Kazakhstan became a WTO member on November 30, 2015.  In addition, Kazakhstan officially entered a Customs Union with Russia and Belarus on July 1, 2010, eventually becoming a founding member of the Eurasian Economic Union (EAEU), which was created on May 29, 2014, between Kazakhstan, Belarus, and Russia.  (The Kyrgyz Republic and Armenia joined in 2015.)  Since that time, Kazakhstan’s trade policy has been heavily influenced by EAEU regulations.  For example, while Kazakhstan asserts that EAEU agreements comply with WTO standards, since joining the Customs Union, Kazakhstan has doubled its average import tariff and introduced annual tariff-rate quotas (TRQs) on poultry and beef.

indonesia

Indonesia

Indonesia

 Indonesia is a country located in Southeastern Asia between the Indian Ocean and the Pacific Ocean. It has a strategic location astride major sea lanes and is an archipelago of 17,508 islands, some of which border Timor-Leste, Malaysia, and Papua New Guinea. The government system is a republic; the chief of state and the head of government is the president. Indonesia has a mixed economic system which includes a variety of private freedom, combined with centralized economic planning and government regulation. Indonesia is a member of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) and the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN).

Population Population Growth Rate Age Dependency Ratio Urban Population Infant Mortality Rate Life Expectancy at Birth
273,523,621 (2020)
1.065 annual % (2020)
47.489 % of working-age population (2020)
56.641 % of total (2020)
20.2 per 1,000 live births (2019)
71.716 years (2019)

Business partners

Exporters

Select your indicators

Value imported in 2021 (USD thousand)

Trade balance 2021 (USD thousand)

Share in Indonesia’s imports (%)

World

195,712,409

32,518,755

100

China

56,225,920

-2,512,359

28.7

Singapore

15,413,410

-4,237,410

7.9

Japan

14,256,962

3,479,811

7.3

United States of America

11,305,846

14,360,087

5.8

Malaysia

9,450,874

2,458,500

4.8

Korea, Republic of

9,427,194

-1,018,266

4.8

Australia

9,415,081

-6,391,545

4.8

Thailand

9,118,600

-2,181,105

4.7

India

7,658,539

5,605,074

3.9

Taipei, Chinese

4,349,963

2,506,910

2.2

Importers

Select your indicators

Value exported in 2021 (USD thousand)

Trade balance 2021 (USD thousand)

Share in Indonesia’s exports (%)

World

228,231,164

32,518,755

100

China

53,713,561

-2,512,359

23.5

United States of America

25,665,933

14,360,087

11.2

Japan

17,736,773

3,479,811

7.8

India

13,263,613

5,605,074

5.8

Malaysia

11,909,374

2,458,500

5.2

Singapore

11,176,000

-4,237,410

4.9

Philippines

8,555,012

7,281,747

3.7

Korea, Republic of

8,408,928

-1,018,266

3.7

Thailand

6,937,495

-2,181,105

3

Taipei, Chinese

6,856,873

2,506,910

3

Most important cities

Indonesia’s most important cities are:
–  Jakarta
–  Surabaya
–  Bandung
–  Medan

Indonesian culture: Customs and traditions

 Indonesia is the largest Muslim-majority country in the world. It is also the biggest archipelago, consisting of over 17,500 islands. The dispersion of the islands means that distinct microcultures have developed to be regionally specific. Furthermore, over 300 ethnic groups are spread across Indonesia. The largest is the Javanese population (41%) that mostly occupies the island of Java. Others include, but are not limited to, the Sundanese, Malay, Batak, Madurese and Betawi people. Most ethnicities have languages, histories and cultures that pertain specifically to them. Hence, Indonesians tend to identify themselves locally foremost (according to their ethnicity, family or birthplace) before defining themselves nationally.

 An Indonesian’s regional, linguistic and ethnic background must be considered in order to fully understand that individual’s cultural influences. For instance, one can observe dominant Indonesian culture to largely reflect characteristics of Javanese and Islamic society. Yet, the Balinese population, occupying the Island of Bali, are mostly Hindu. They follow different customs and traditions, have an alternate religious calendar and are divergent from other ethnic populations in many other ways.

 Indonesia is also more collectivistic than Western societies. Individuals often perceive themselves to be members of ‘groups’ rather than autonomous actors. These groups reflect or come to define who its members are and often expect a high degree of loyalty. For example, the group’s interests usually supersede those of the individual, even if they conflict. Furthermore, group members expect to receive preferential treatment over anyone who is not part of the group. In return for this loyalty, an individual gains a sense of belonging, protection and unity. This is important as unity is considered essential to maintaining harmony among all the diverse populaces.

 Indonesian society is hierarchical, organized predominantly by age. One’s status, education and perceived power will demand degrees of deference, but age usually becomes the overriding factor determining the level of respect. Elders are presumed to have the most wisdom and are therefore considered the most deserving of authority. Indonesians may use honorific speech and bow slightly when talking to someone older than them. Women have full civil rights; the Islamic code that professes a separation between genders is not followed as stringently as it is in other Islamic countries. However, there is a distinct attitude in society that sees females as secondary to males.

Weather and Climate

 Indonesia’s climate is largely hot and humid, with rainfall occurring mostly in low-lying areas and mountainous regions experiencing cooler temperatures. The cities of Jakarta, Ujung Padang, Medan, Padang, and Balikpapan have an average minimum temperature of 22.8°C and a high of 30.2°C. Humidity in Jakarta varies between 61% to 95% and average rainfall amounts to 218.4 millimeters (mm) per month. The “wet” season occurs between November and April, leaving May through October typically dry. Indonesia experiences drier conditions during El Nino events and wetter conditions during La Nina events. Indonesia lies across the range of the Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) where the northeast and southeast trade winds penetrate the doldrums. Strong ascending motion, overcast skies, strong squalls, heavy rainfall and severe local thunderstorms with variable intensities are characteristics of this zone. 

Natural resources

Indonesia is a bountiful country full of natural resources, such as coal, copper, gold, oil and natural gas.

Indonesia is endowed with rich natural resources. The nation also has fertile soils that support a variety of cash crops. Indonesia is a major supplier of commodities such as coffee, rubber, timber, palm oil, and cocoa to the world market and to a lesser extent tea, sugar, copra, spices, and tobacco.

Economic Index

–  GDP (current US$) – Indonesia
1,058,423.84      

–  GDP, PPP (current international $) – Indonesia
3,302,178.32

–  GDP per capita, PPP (current international $) – Indonesia
12,072.7

–  GDP per capita (current US$) – Indonesia
3,869.6

–  Gini index – Indonesia
37.3

–  Inflation, consumer prices (annual %) – Indonesia
1.6

Internet use in Indonesia in 2022

– There were 204.7 million internet users in Indonesia in January 2022.
– Indonesia’s internet penetration rate stood at 73.7 percent of the total population at the start of 2022

Social Media Stats In Indonesia

Facebook = 68.65%

YouTube = 24.66%

Instagram = 3.85%

Twitter = 2.01%

Pinterest = 0.62%

VKontakte = 0.12%

Standards for Trade

 The Indonesian government and related industrial players have been active in formulating standards for products and services. The National Standardization Agency of Indonesia (Badan Standarisasi Nasional “BSN”), is an Indonesian government agency responsible for standardization, conformity assessment, and metrology activities in Indonesia. BSN was established in 1997 under Presidential Decree 13/1997 and enhanced by Presidential Decree No 166/2000. 

 According to government regulation, the only national standards permitted are Indonesian National Standards (SNIs) and BSN is responsible for their formulation. SNIs are formulated in accordance with the nationally agreed mechanism of standard formulation and aligned with similar regional or international standards whenever possible. Various Indonesian government ministries cite these standards in their technical regulations.

Import Tariffs

 Most Indonesian tariffs on non-agricultural goods are bound at 35.5 percent, although tariff rates exceed 35.5 percent or remain unbound on automobiles, iron, steel, and some chemical products. In the agricultural sector, tariffs on more than 1,300 products have bindings at or above 35.5 percent. Under Minister of Finance (MOF) Regulation 112/2018, Indonesia levies an import duty of 7.5 percent on certain goods (known as “consignment goods”) imported by businesses regardless of the tariff rate in Indonesia’s WTO and free trade agreement schedules, if the Free On Board customs value of the good is more than USD 75 but less than USD 1,500. Indonesia maintains tariff rates as a high as 10 percent on certain information and communication technologies, including certain types of telecommunications equipment as well as servers.

Trade Agreements

 Indonesia is a party to the region-wide Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) Free Trade Area. ASEAN, and by extension Indonesia, also has preferential trade agreements with Australia, China, Hong Kong India, Japan, Korea, and New Zealand and concluded text-based negotiations of the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership in November 2019. Indonesia has signed bilateral free trade agreements (FTAs) with Australia, Chile, Mozambique, as well as with Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway, and Switzerland under the European Free Trade Association, but as of the end of 2019, none of these FTAs are yet in force except with Chile. Indonesia recently concluded negotiations with Korea on a Comprehensive Economic Partnership Agreement. Indonesia is negotiating other FTAs with the European Union (EU), India, Tunisia, and Turkey as well as reviewing its trade agreements with Japan and Pakistan.

IMG_20230710_133849_884

Construction Tools in Ghana

Construction Tools in Ghana

 In Ghana, construction equipment must meet certain certification and standard Requirements to ensure safety and quality in construction activities. They include:

1. Ghana Standards Authority (GSA) Product Certification
2. ISO (International Organization for Standardization) Standards
3. EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) Regulations
4. EN (European Norm) Standards

Standards

ISO standards for construction equipment in Ghana include ISO 12100, ISO 9001, and ISO 14001.

Import Value

According to the World Bank, Ghana’s construction machinery and equipment Imports were valued at $841 million in 2019.

Competitors in Ghana

1. Asanduff Group of Companies
2. Elgyboat Enterprise
3. Harena Home Depot
4. Elgyboat Roofing and Construction
5. Chesapeake Development Company Ghana
6. Intric Agency Company Limited
7. Marafari Enterprise

8. Nabco Land and Property Developers Ltd
9. Pilkar Plastics Industry Limited
10. Super Warehouse
11. Vappy Limited
12. Haiflow SAL Offshore
13. Obra Pa Tiles