Ship-container

10 shipping container types

10 shipping container types

There are millions of different products that need to be shipped across the world all with different shapes, sizes, and requirements.

 containers play the most vital part in delivering goods from one region to different parts of the world, whether it is traded, shipping industry or transportation work. None of it will be possible without shipping containers.

Shipping containers are manufactured in different shapes and sizes. Despite the differences, containers can be broadly categorized by usage, edge, or size.

But  How do you make sure you get the right container for your cargo? We’re here to help you out.

Here are 10 main container types

  • 1-Standard and high cube containers

standard containers are the most common containers. They are 20 feet or 40 feet long, and have doors at one end, made of steel or aluminium. They’re air-tight and water-resistant. You can also get high cubes which offer more vertical space or half-height containers.
High cube shipping containers are similar to standard shipping containers, but with the added room of an additional 12 inches, 1 foot of height.

To avoid confusion and standardize a ship’s capacity, the number of containers a ship can load is translated into a number of 20-foot containers. And that measurement is known as TEU .

20 feet is one TEU and 40 feet is two TEUS

High cube container

  • 2- Reefer containers

 reefer containers are basically big refrigerators that allow you to control the inside temperature of the container. They have t-shaped decking in the flooring that sends chilled air into the container and can maintain any temperature between – 30 and 30 ℃, but refers can be expensive because they need power and and regular maintenance.

they are generally used for storing in shipping temperature, sensitive products, or materials. The most common examples of the products can be edibles like fruits, vegetables, meat, et cetera. These containers are powered by an external power source to maintain the specific internal temperature inside the container.

Reefer container

  • 3- Double door containers,

A double door container has doors at each end creating a tunnel. This makes it easier to load and unload.
As goods can be accessed from either end of the container. For example, a car can be driven in and then simply driven out no need to reverse

Double door container

  • 4- Open Top container

As the name suggests, the roof or the Top of the container is entirely removable. This feature makes overhyped products that cannot be loaded traditionally from the front door easy to load. Likes of the product include tall machinery and finished products that are tall and can be loaded from cranes or rail bridges only.

Open Top container

  • 5- palate, wide container

 These containers are designed to carry wooden euro palace which are popular in Europe, because the palate white container is 5 centimetres wider than the standard container. It can take up to 15 euro pilots instead of the average 11,

Palate, wide container

  • 6-Flat rack containers

Flat rack containers are unique shipping containers that consist of only a flatbed and have either fixed or collapsible ends on the container or no ends at all. They are designed to ship products that won’t fit into a general purpose or open Top container

Flat rack container

  • 7-Side door containers

side door or open side containers have extra doors on the long side of the container. This makes them easier to load and unload because more workers can access cargo at once and bulky cargo that doesn’t fit through the end. Doors can be loaded through the side.

Side door container

  • 8-Hard Top containers

 these containers have a detachable hard Top. It’s great for cargo that’s difficult to load through the side doors.

Hard Top container

  • 9- Tank containers

tank containers, or tankers are made to transport liquid. They are made of strong steel and anti-corrosive materials to protect the liquid and keep it from leaking out.

Tank container

  • 10- Insulated containers

these containers keep a consistent temperature inside the container. No matter what the outside temperature is, the interior is fully sealed to avoid condensation. And moisture often with vacuum-sealed double doors.

 They are attached to a mechanical compressor to heat or cool the insides of the container. They carry items that are easily affected by temperature like blood organs, food materials, et cetera.

Insulated container

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10 Largest Ports in the world

10 Largest Ports in the world

The main mode of transportation for global trade is ocean shipping. Around 90 % of traded goods are carried over the seas. There’s no doubt the maritime shipping industry plays a crucial role in the maintenance and growth of the global economy.

Out of the top 20 ports, only ONE is in the United States and three are from Europe.

15 of the top 20 busiest ports are in East Asia.

Here are top 10 busiest ports according to volume of trade handled in TEU.

  • 10-port of Rotterdam, Netherlands           
  • cargo capacity, 14.51 million TEUS.

The port of Rotterdam is currently the biggest port in Europe and the 10th biggest in the world by annual cargo throughput. The port handled 441.5 million tons of cargo. It is the only port in northwestern Europe that offers unrestricted access to ships with the deepest drafts. The port, including an industrial complex within its vicinity, stretches across the length of about 42 kilometres. It is managed and operated by the port of Rotterdam Authority.

port of Rotterdam, Netherlands

9- port of Tianjin, China

cargo capacity, 16 million TEUS.

The port of Tianjin is located just 150 kilometres from Beijing. It is often considered to be the maritime gateway to the Chinese capital located in the mouth of Hay River in northern China. It connects to more than 500 ports and serves 189 countries.

Tianjin Port Group Companies is the operator. It handled 476 million tons of cargo. The transportation of hazardous goods to and fro from the port was halted for 2 years in 2015

port of Tianjin, China

8- port of Qingdao, China

Cargo capacity, 18 . 26 million TEUS

Established in 1892. China’s port of Qingdao is made up of four different port areas. It’s considered to be one of the most important ports for the West Pacific trade. The port is touted as the world’s largest port for iron ore and China’s largest port of crude oil. The port merges  the small ports and is connected to more than 450 ports in more than 130 countries and regions across the world.

port of Qingdao, China

7- port of Hong Kong, Hong Kong

Cargo capacity, 19.60 million TEUSs

It’s owned by a private sector consortium of five companies and handles roughly 23.9 million shipping containers and about 456,000 vessels per year. Now the port operates via three cross-boundary ferry terminals, nine container terminals and eight public cargo working areas while also being home to a state-run dockyard with about 795 vessels from 14 different government departments.

port of Hong Kong, Hong Kong

6- port of Busan, South Korea

cargo capacity, 21.66 million TEUs

Port of Busan is the world’s third largest transhipment port and 6th largest port. It is located in the mouth of the Nakton River in South Korea. It is spread over an area of 840,000 square meters and is capable of handling 169 vessels simultaneously. The South Korean port handles 40 % of the total marine export freights, 80 % of container freights and 42 % of fisheries production of the entire nation.

port of Busan, South Korea

5- port of Guangzhou, China

cargo capacity, 21.87 million TEUs

 the port of Guangzhou two spots to become the 5th busiest port in the world from its 2017 ranking of 7th place. After a record-breaking number of tests handled in 2018, the port is divided into four main areas. The port is located in the middle of the Pearl River Delta. It is operated by the Guangzhou Port Authority, and it is currently the largest loading and discharging port for coal in China. It handles more than 23 million standard shipping containers per year and reaches over 300 ports and more than 80 countries through its direct networks.

70 % of the total port container is located in Nanchor, one of the port major areas

port of Guangzhou, China

4- port of Ningbo-zhoushan, China

cargo capacity 26 . 35 million TEUS formerly two separate entities.

The ports of Ningbo and Zhoushan merged in 2006 to become the 4th largest port in the world. Today, the port is known for its infrastructure capabilities, which include a massive crude oil terminal that can hold 250,000 tons of crude oil and a 200,000 + ton or loading berth. The port connects to more than 600 ports in more than 100 countries. it handled more than 453 million tons of cargo. The reason for its importance is that it’s located at a crossroads to canals to important waterways such as the Yangtze river, while the port is also has a variety of different specialized cargo areas such as the Bailun Seaport, the Shanghai Estuary Port and the ningbo island river port due to its location.

port of Ningbo-zhoushan, China

3- port of Shenzhen, China

cargo capacity 27 . 74 million TEUS.

the port of Shenzhen is home to 40 shipping companies who have launched around 130 international container routes with the port, in general, being connected to over 300 ports in over 100 countries. It is perhaps thanks to all of these connections that Shenzhen is a pretty happening place. It’s also considered to be the world’s 4th busiest port due to the fact that over 26.5 million standard shipping containers are handled there annually. Given that the port is only 42 years old, these stats are pretty impressive. And in the plan is for Shenzhen to be an integral part of China’s belt and Road Development initiative. As such the port of Shenzhen truly is an incredible center of mercantile commerce.

port of Shenzhen, China

2- port of Singapore

cargo capacity, 36.60 million TEUS prior to being overtaken by the port of Shanghai.

While there are several massive ports located in China, the main port that services, much of southeast Asia is actually outside of the middle kingdom. That’s because the port of Singapore takes a spot for being the largest publicly owned port in the world. It offers links to more than 600 ports in 123 countries making it by far one of the most well connected trade hubs on the planet, because of this connectivity it attracts more than 130,000 vessels per year, which collectively handle about 37 . 2 million standard cargo containers and about 622 million tons of product each year.

As a result of this massive inflow of funds, Singapore wants to develop the port, which will be able to handle 65 million standard shipping containers and will use innovative technologies such as yard automation and fully electric, automated guided vehicles.

port of Singapore

1-port of Shanghai, China

cargo capacity 42.01 million TEUS.

The port of Shanghai has been the world’s largest port by cargo volume since 2010 when it overtook Singapore to gain the title With a cargo size of 744 million tons of cargo , it’s handled 42.01 million of cargo capacity in 2018. A world record owned by the port. The port is located at the mouth of the Yangtze River and it’s owned by Shanghai International Port Group. It serves more than 2,000 container ships every month and accounts for 1/4 of China’s total foreign trade.

port of Shanghai, China

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Bell Pepper Russia

Bell Pepper

 Russia, with its vast consumer base and growing demand for fresh produce, presents an exciting opportunity for exporters of bell pepper. In this article, we will delve into the export potential of bell pepper to Russia, discuss the necessary documents and regulations, highlight popular varieties of bell pepper in the Russian market, and shed light on the competitive landscape.

Standards Required for Exporting Bell Peppers to Russia

 Before venturing into the Russian market, it is crucial to understand the necessary documents and regulations. Exporters should ensure compliance with phytosanitary requirements, including obtaining a phytosanitary certificate issued by the exporting country’s plant protection organization. Additionally, familiarize yourself with customs procedures, labeling requirements, and any specific regulations imposed by Russian authorities.

Standard: (UNECE FFV-28:2010), GOST R 55885 – 2013

 Pepper is an agricultural product whose popularity in Russia is increasing every year. The sale of a type of vegetable, like all food products, is allowed only after confirming the quality and safety. Declaration of Conformity for pepper is a mandatory authorization document based on which the trade of the commodity is considered legal.

The regulatory documents governing the production and sale of food products are:
1. TR CU 021/2011 includes safety criteria for all food products.
2. TR CU 022/2011 helps control the labeling of vegetable products.
3. TR TS 029/2012 regulates the use of food additives in the processing of food products.

According to these technical rules, the declaration of pepper is mandatory. Due to the lack of declaration of food products, the entrepreneur will be fined, deprived of the undeclared goods, and have the right to operate for up to 90 days.

Declarations for bell peppers or other vegetable products are issued after successful laboratory tests that evaluate:
Organoleptic indicators (taste, appearance, color uniformity); 5

Pesticides and toxic substances;
1. Absence of pathogenic microorganisms;
2. Combination of food additives and flavorings

In the laboratory, samples of the labels are checked, on which he is obliged to apply:
1. Product Name;
2.
Manufacturer information
3. Vegetable harvest date
4. Product expiration date;

 Based on that, the specialists of the certification organization decide on the results of the implementation of the declaration to be tested. After registering the document, the manufacturer shall mark the right of the product with the EAC mark, indicating that the product complies with the requirements of the technical rules of the Customs Union.

Top Exporters of Bell Pepper to Russia

Several countries have established themselves as prominent exporters of bell peppers to Russia. Among the top exporters are:

 

List of supplying markets for the product imported by the Russian Federation in 2022

Product: 070960 Fresh or chilled fruits of the genus Capsicum or Pimenta

Exporters

Select your indicators

Value imported in 2022 (USD thousand)

Trade balance 2022 (USD thousand)

Share in Russian Federation’s imports (%)

The quantity imported in 2022

Total

124,093

-123,853

100

85,313

Israel

47,012

-47,012

37.9

22,091

China

30,659

-30,659

24.7

26,296

Türkiye

22,977

-22,772

18.5

18,622

Armenia

13,582

-13,582

10.9

8,010

Uzbekistan

4,472

-4,451

3.6

4,448

Kyrgyzstan

2,099

-2,099

1.7

2,331

Macedonia, North

1,458

-1,458

1.2

928

Thailand

447

-447

0.4

76

Kazakhstan

370

-357

0.3

1,946

3Netherlands

347

-347

0.3

129

While there are dominant exporters of bell peppers to Russia, local and regional competitors also actively participate in satisfying the growing demand. Russian farmers and agricultural enterprises have been making efforts to meet the market needs by increasing domestic production. This competition not only provides consumers with a wider range of choices but also promotes price competitiveness.

 

Additionally, neighboring countries such as Belarus, Ukraine, and Kazakhstan also export bell peppers to Russia. Their geographical proximity offers logistical advantages, shorter transportation routes, and potentially fresher produce.

cement-main-page

Cement Market in Indonesia

Cement Market in Indonesia

 The cement market in Indonesia has witnessed significant growth in recent years, driven by infrastructure development, urbanization, and a growing construction industry. This article aims to provide an overview of the cement market in Indonesia, including import values and volumes, standards and requirements for exporting to Indonesia, key competitors, top exporters of cement, popular varieties of cement, and other relevant details.

Popular Varieties of Cement in Indonesia

In Indonesia, several varieties of cement are popularly used in construction projects. These include Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC), Portland Composite Cement (PCC), and Sulphate Resistant Cement (SRC). OPC is the most widely used cement type, suitable for general construction purposes. PCC, which combines Portland cement with supplementary cementitious materials, offers enhanced durability and strength. SRC is specifically designed for areas with high sulfate content in the soil or water.

Import Value and Volume

Indonesia, despite being a major cement producer, also imports cement to meet domestic demand. According to real data from the Indonesian Central Statistics Agency (BPS), the import value of cement in Indonesia reached approximately $100 million in 2020. This indicates a steady demand for imported cement in the country. The import volume of cement in the same year was around 1.5 million metric tons.

Competitors in the Cement Market in Indonesia

The cement market in Indonesia is highly competitive, with both domestic and international players vying for market share. Some of the key competitors in the market include PT Semen Indonesia (the largest cement producer in Indonesia), PT Indocement Tunggal Prakarsa, PT Holcim Indonesia, and PT Lafarge Cement Indonesia. These companies have established strong market positions and have extensive distribution networks across the country.

Top Exporters of Cement

Indonesia also exports cement to various countries. According to trade data, the top exporters of cement to Indonesia include Vietnam, China, Thailand, Malaysia, and South Korea. These countries have been able to meet the demand for specific types of cement in the Indonesian market.

Exporters

Select your indicators

Value imported in 2022 (USD thousand)

Trade balance 2022 (USD thousand)

Share in Indonesia’s imports (%)

Quantity imported in 2022

Quantity unit

Unit value (USD/unit)

World

163,371

-141,737

100

1,078,118

Tons

152

China

123,572

-123,530

75.6

806,246

Tons

153

Malaysia

29,635

-25,973

18.1

255,494

Tons

116

Viet Nam

2,563

-2,555

1.6

815

Tons

3,145

Spain

1,745

-1,545

1.1

961

Tons

1,816

Singapore

1,223

-993

0.7

11,582

Tons

106

Japan

1,178

-995

0.7

215

Tons

5,479

United Kingdom

963

-465

0.6

1,043

Tons

923

Germany

881

-759

0.5

112

Tons

7,866

Thailand

454

72

0.3

583

Tons

779

Italy

430

-419

0.3

673

Tons

639

Standards and Requirements for Exporting to Indonesia

 To export cement to Indonesia, manufacturers must adhere to certain standards and requirements. The Indonesian National Standard (SNI) for cement sets the quality and safety standards that imported cement must meet. Additionally, exporters must obtain the necessary permits and certifications from relevant Indonesian authorities, such as the Ministry of Trade and the Ministry of Industry.

 The cement market in Indonesia presents both opportunities and challenges for domestic and international players. With a growing construction industry and infrastructure development projects, the demand for cement remains strong. However, competition is fierce, with established local players dominating the market. Exporters looking to enter the Indonesian market must ensure compliance with quality standards and obtain the necessary permits. Understanding the popular varieties of cement and the preferences of the Indonesian market can also contribute to successful market entry and growth in this dynamic industry.

tajikestan

Tajikistan

Tajikistan

 Tajikistan is a landlocked country in Central Asia. Neighboring countries include Afghanistan, China, Kyrgyzstan, and Uzbekistan. The geography of Tajikistan is dominated by the Pamir-Alay mountains along with valleys in the south and southwest. The government system is a republic; the chief of state is the president, and the head of government is the prime minister. Tajikistan has a mixed economy in which there is a variety of private freedom, combined with centralized economic planning and government regulation.

Population Population Growth Rate Age Dependency Ratio Urban Population Infant Mortality Rate Life Expectancy at Birth
9,750,064 (2021)
2.144 annual % (2021)
65.936 % of working-age population (2021)
27.726 % of total (2021)
28.4 per 1,000 live births (2020)
67.994 years (2020)

Business partners

Exporters

Select your indicators

Value imported in 2022 (USD thousand)

Trade balance 2022 (USD thousand)

Share in Tajikistan’s imports (%)

Total

3,569,444

-2,300,821

100

China

2,217,030

-1,835,277

62.1

Uzbekistan

392,713

-227,298

11

Türkiye

388,736

-217,411

10.9

United States of America

123,628

-122,128

3.5

Korea, Republic of

92,676

-92,308

2.6

Lithuania

65,164

-59,618

1.8

Germany

59,385

-56,930

1.7

Italy

26,786

-4,095

0.8

Japan

23,835

-21,543

0.7

Poland

20,907

-15,652

0.6

Importers

Select your indicators

Value exported in 2022 (USD thousand)

Trade balance 2022 (USD thousand)

Share in Tajikistan’s exports (%)

Total

1,268,623

-2,300,821

100

China

381,753

-1,835,277

30.1

Switzerland

279,170

276,261

22

Türkiye

171,325

-217,411

13.5

Uzbekistan

165,415

-227,298

13

Hong Kong, China

97,976

80,155

7.7

France

79,711

70,121

6.3

Belgium

32,623

24,161

2.6

Italy

22,691

-4,095

1.8

Brazil

7,761

7,674

0.6

Lithuania

5,546

-59,618

0.4

Major Cities

Dushanbe

Khujand

Kulob

Bokhtar

Culture

 Tajikistan‘s culture is a fascinating blend of ancient traditions and influences from neighboring regions. With a history deeply rooted in Persian and Turkic cultures, Tajikistan showcases a unique cultural identity. The Tajik language, closely related to Persian, is the official language and serves as a symbol of cultural heritage. Islam plays a significant role in shaping the cultural practices and values of the Tajik people, with mosques and religious observances being an integral part of daily life.

 Hospitality is a cornerstone of Tajik culture, where guests are warmly welcomed and treated with utmost respect. Traditional music and dance are cherished forms of artistic expression, with instruments like the rubab and tanbur accompanying lively performances. Tajik craftsmanship is renowned, with intricate embroidery, pottery, and wood carving showcasing the artistic skills passed down through generations. Traditional clothing, adorned with vibrant colors and elaborate patterns, adds to the visual richness of Tajik culture. The cuisine of Tajikistan is diverse, influenced by its neighboring countries, and features dishes like plov, which is a flavorful rice dish cooked with meat and vegetables.

 In summary, Tajikistan’s culture is a captivating tapestry woven with historical influences, religious practices, warm hospitality, artistic expressions, and delectable cuisine. It is a culture that proudly celebrates its heritage while embracing the influences of the modern world.

Weather and Climate

 Tajikistan experiences a continental climate, characterized by hot summers and cold winters. The climate varies across the country due to its diverse topography, which includes high mountains, valleys, and deserts.

 In general, Tajikistan has hot and dry summers, with temperatures reaching up to 40°C (104°F) in some lowland areas. However, temperatures tend to be cooler in the mountainous regions. Winters are cold, with temperatures dropping below freezing, especially in the higher elevations. Snowfall is common during the winter months.

Natural Resources

 Tajikistan is rich in natural resources. It has significant deposits of minerals, including gold, silver, lead, zinc, and uranium. The country also has substantial reserves of natural gas and coal. Additionally, Tajikistan is known for its hydropower potential, with numerous rivers and lakes providing opportunities for hydroelectric power generation.

 The diverse geography of Tajikistan contributes to its natural resources. The country is home to the Pamir Mountains, which are part of the larger Himalayan mountain range. These mountains provide a source of freshwater through rivers and glaciers, supporting agriculture and hydroelectric power generation.

 It’s worth noting that the availability and exploitation of natural resources in Tajikistan are influenced by various factors, including infrastructure, economic conditions, and geopolitical considerations. The country continues to explore and develop its natural resources to support its economic growth and development.

Economic Index

GDP (current US$) – Tajikistan
Year 2021:   8,746,270.64

GDP, PPP (current international $) – Tajikistan
Year 2021:   41,809,911.37

GDP per capita, PPP (current international $) – Tajikistan
Year 2021:   4,288.2

GDP per capita (constant LCU) – Tajikistan
Year 2021:   847

GDP per capita (current US$) – Tajikistan
Year 2021:   897.0

Gini index – Tajikistan
Year 2015:   34.0

Social Media Stats in Tajikistan

Facebook = 49.34%

Instagram = 31.92%

YouTube = 6.17%

Pinterest = 5.87%

Twitter = 3.09%

VKontakte = 2.79%

Standards

 Tajikistan has been a member of WTO since 2 March 2013. More information can be found on the WTO site. Tajikistan is in the process of harmonizing its standards with international norms.  U.S. companies should be aware that, on paper, Tajikistan has a comprehensive system of mandatory standards but, in practice, cannot properly administer the complex and demanding standards system.  The absence of well-equipped laboratories, qualified staff, and effective enforcement capacity are serious problems.  In principle, Tajikistan accepts the conformity certificates issued by its major trading partners; in practice, however, some importers say this does not happen. 

Standards:
The Law on Certification of Products and Services and other acts regulate certification procedures in Tajikistan.  According to article 12 of the Law on State Foreign Trade Regulation, all commodities imported to Tajikistan are required to meet technical, pharmacological, sanitary, veterinary, phyto-sanitary and environmental standards and requirements.  All services and processes are subject to certification, the procedure for which is in theory the same for all products.

Import Tariffs

 Tajikistan’s official trade regime is relatively liberal; tariff rates range between zero and fifteen percent, with the overall trade-weighted import tariff averaging out to around seven percent.  The world’s forty-five least developed countries are exempt from import tariffs.  The Tajik Customs Code generally complies with WTO requirements on evaluation and rates and Agreement on Rules of Goods Transit.  The main difference is in the evaluation methods of goods for customs purposes.

ghana

Ghana

Ghana

 Ghana, located on the west coast of Africa, is a vibrant and culturally rich country known for its historical significance, natural beauty, and warm hospitality. The government system is a presidential republic; the chief of state and head of government is the president. Ghana has a mixed economic system, which includes some private freedom combined with weak centralized economic planning and government regulation. Ghana is a member of the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS).
 With a population of over 30 million people, Ghana boasts a diverse mix of ethnic groups, each contributing to the country’s unique cultural tapestry. Form the bustling markets to Accra, the capital city, to the serene beaches along the Atlantic coastline, Ghana offers a captivating blend of traditional and modern experiences. With a stable democracy and a growing economy, Ghana has emerged as a prominent player in the region, attracting both tourists and investors oneself in the rhythms of highlife music, or savoring the flavors of local cuisine, Ghana offers a captivating journey into the heart of West Africa.

Population Population Growth Rate Age Dependency Ratio Urban Population Infant Mortality Rate Life Expectancy at Birth
31,072,945 (2020)
2.131 annual % (2020)
67.424 % of working-age population (2020)
57.349 % of total (2020)
33.9 per 1,000 live births (2019)
64.074 years (2019)

Business partners

Exporters

Select your indicators

Value imported in 2021 (USD thousand)

Trade balance 2021 (USD thousand)

Share in Ghana’s imports (%)

Total

18,500,854

-5,748,889

100

China

7,365,480

-6,128,968

39.8

India

1,099,174

489,769

5.9

Netherlands

1,043,693

-253,377

5.6

United States of America

983,215

795,868

5.3

Belgium

686,135

-404,826

3.7

Malaysia

570,308

-104,693

3.1

United Kingdom

551,832

-369,525

3

Turkey

461,851

-342,568

2.5

Germany

421,075

-84,204

2.3

South Africa

415,185

131,335

2.2

Importers

Select your indicators

Value exported in 2021 (USD thousand)

Trade balance 2021 (USD thousand)

Share in Ghana’s exports (%)

Total

12,751,965

-5,748,889

100

Switzerland

2,451,468

2,417,914

19.2

United States of America

1,779,083

795,868

14

India

1,588,943

489,769

12.5

China

1,236,512

-6,128,968

9.7

Netherlands

790,316

-253,377

6.2

South Africa

546,520

131,335

4.3

Malaysia

465,615

-104,693

3.7

Italy

340,277

56,943

2.7

Germany

336,871

-84,204

2.6

France

324,449

84,512

2.5

Major Cities

Accra

Kumasi

Sekondi-Takorandi

Culture

 The People of Ghana are warn and friendly. They are polite, open and trusting – even with strangers. In Ghanaian society, it is traditional to take life at a relaxed pace and view time as a series of events rathe than a matter of hours or minutes.

In Ghanaian society, people are more important than schedules.

 Most Ghanaians consider “Let’s get to business” conversation rude. It is custom for Ghanaians to exchange pleasantries and ask about family before beginning business. They greet one another, making extra effort to greet older people. With the men, handshakes almost always accompany greetings.

Ghana’s 24 million people include six major ethnic groups that break into more than 60 smaller ones.

 The six larger groups are the Akan (Ashanti and Fanti), the Ewe, the Ga-Adangbe, the Mole-Dagbani, the Guan and the Gruma. Like most other African nations, Ghana has rich, traditional cultures that differ from one ethnic group to another.

 Along with different ethnic groups and cultures, 52 separate languages and hundreds of dialects are spoken in Ghana. The official language is English – a residual of British colonial rule, from which modern Ghana gained independence in 1957.

 Until its independence, Ghana was known as the Gold Coast. It was renamed Ghana, meaning “Warrior King”, to reflect the ancient Ghana Empire that flourished in West Africa during the 10th century.

 Today, the Ghanaian government is a unitary republic considering of a president, parliament, cabinet, council of state and an independent judiciary. it is tradition t hold elections every four years. The government administration operates out of the central business district of Accra, the country’s capital city. As  the country’s largest city, Accra has population of roughly 2.4 million.

Ghanaians emphasize values such as the importance of family, respect for the elderly and honor for traditional rulers.

 They place high value on dignity and proper social conduct. Individual conduct is seen as having impact on an entire family, social group and community. Therefore, each person is expected to be respectful, dignified and observant in nearly every aspect of life.

 An entire family shares any loss of honor, which makes the culture a collective one. protecting this sense of “Face” requires harmony. People behave with decorum to ensure they don’t cause embarrassment to others.

Everything is shared – even food, no matter how small the amount.

Weather and Climate

 Ghana has a typically tropical climate thanks to its proximity to the equator and low elevations – the entire county lies below 1,000m (3300ft). Daytime temperatures are high throughout the year, approaching or surpassing 30°C (86°F) on most days, and humidity is also very high, especially along the coast. Temperatures tend to drop around 20°C (68°F) at night, more noticeably in the relatively dry north than the humid south. The most temperate part of Ghana is the highlands area flanking the Volta Basin, which is often pleasantly cool after dusk.

Natural Resources

 The country is endowed this rich natural resources. Timber, Gold, Diamonds, Bauxite, Manganese, and Oil contribute to making Ghana among the wealthier nations in West Africa. While its economy is one of the most successful in the region, it remains heavily dependent on international finance.

Economic Index

GDP (current US$) – Ghana
77,594,279.05

GDP, PPP (current international $) – Ghana
196,050,132.52

GDP per capita, PPP (current international $) – Ghana
6,178.3

GDP per capita (current US$) – Ghana
2,445.3

Gini index – Ghana
43.5

Inflation, consumer prices (annual %) – Ghana
10.0

Social Media Stats in Ghana

Facebook = 58.33%

YouTube = 16.6%

Twitter = 12.21%

Pinterest = 7.7%

Instagram = 4.54%

LinkedIn = 0.3%

Standards

 Ghana uses 220V and for electricity and the metric system of measurement.

 The Ghana Standards Authority (GSA), formerly known as the Ghana Standards Board, is responsible for developing and promulgating standards as well as ensuring that the quality of goods imported into Ghana meets acceptable standards. The Ghana Food and Drugs Authority (FDA) also regulates and certifies food, drugs, cosmetics and other products that have health implications for consumers. This arrangement involves some overlap between the two bodies, a situation which the government of Ghana (Ministry of Trade and Industry) is attempting to resolve.

Import Tariffs

 Ghana currently uses the harmonized System (HS) Customs Code to classify goods. Tariffs are based on value (ad valorem) or weight or volume (specific) and are subject to change. Most goods, unless they are totally exempt from customs duties, are subject to an important duty, Value Added Tax (VAT), and certain other fees and charges. The import duty is assessed on the Cost Insurance Freight (CIF) value of the good. The VAT and other fees and charges are assessed on CIF + Duty.

 Consistent with the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) common external tariff (CET), Ghana applies five tariff bands to products from the United States:
1. Zero percent duty on essential social goods (e.g., medicine)
2. 5 percent duty on essential commodities, raw materials, and capital goods
3. 10 percent duty on intermediate goods
4. 20 percent duty on consumer goods
5. 35 percent duty on certain goods that the Ghanaian Government elected to afford greater protection.

 Imports are subject to a variety of fees and charges in addition to tariffs. Ghana imposes a 0.5 percent ECOWAS levy on all goods originating from non-ECOWAS countries, a 0.2 percent levy on imports from outside African Union (AU) Member States, and a 0.75 percent Export-Import Act fee on all non-petroleum products on all imports, except for machinery and equipment listed under Chapters 84 and 85 of the Harmonized Tariff System and some petroleum products and fertilizers.

Dates

Date In Oman

Date In Oman

Dates hold a significant position in Omani culture and cuisine, making them a highly valued commodity in the country. Oman’s climate and fertile soil make it ideal for date cultivation, but the demand for this delectable fruit often surpasses the local production capacity. As a result, Oman relies heavily on importing dates to meet the needs of its residents and tourists alike. In this article, we will explore the import value of dates in Oman, the standards required for their export, the top exporters in the country, the competition faced by local producers, and some popular date varieties in Oman.

 Oman‘s love for dates transcends borders, and imported dates play a crucial role in fulfilling the nation’s demands. According to recent statistics, the import value of dates in Oman amounted to millions of dollars annually. This figure underlines the significance of date imports in the country and emphasizes the potential for businesses to tap into this market.

Standards Needed to Export Dates to Oman

 To ensure the quality and safety of dates imported into Oman, the Omani authorities have set specific standards that need to be met by exporters. These standards encompass various aspects, including the date’s size, color, texture, and taste. Additionally, there are regulations pertaining to packaging, labeling, and shelf life to guarantee that the imported dates reach consumers in optimal condition.

 Exporters interested in entering the Omani market need to adhere to these standards to gain the necessary certifications and approvals for their products. Complying with the requirements not only ensures the acceptance of the dates in Oman but also builds trust among consumers, which is essential for long-term success.

 Exporting dates to Oman involves certain paperwork and documentation to ensure smooth customs clearance and compliance with import regulations. The required documents generally include a commercial invoice, certificate of origin, health certificate, packaging list, and bill of lading. These documents demonstrate the authenticity, quality, and compliance of the exported dates, streamlining the import process and minimizing any delays or complications.  

Top Exporters of Dates in Oman

 Several countries excel in exporting dates to Oman, supplying the nation with a diverse range of high-quality produce. Some of the top exporters of dates to Oman include Saudi Arabia, Iran, Egypt, Jordan, and the United Arab Emirates. These countries have developed strong trade relationships with Omani buyers and have established their reputation for consistently delivering superior date varieties.

 While dates are widely imported into Oman, the local market also witnesses intense competition from domestic date producers. Oman boasts its own thriving date industry, with numerous farms and companies dedicated to cultivating and processing dates. Domestic competitors play a vital role in meeting the local demand, offering a variety of delicious Omani date types that resonate with the cultural preferences of the population.

Popular Dates in Oman

 Omanis take pride in their affinity for dates, and the country hosts an abundant variety of date cultivars. Some of the popular date types in Oman include Khalas, Fardh, Khunaizi, Um Asemad, and Barhi. Each variety possesses its unique flavor profile, texture, and sweetness, adding richness to Omani delicacies and traditional dishes.

 In conclusion, the import value of dates in Oman is substantial, emphasizing the need for exporters to meet the established standards to enter this lucrative market successfully. While competition exists, the diverse range of date varieties and the cultural appreciation for dates in Oman present enormous opportunities for both importers and local producers. Understanding the necessary documentation and compliance requirements is essential for a seamless export process.

Oman

Oman

Oman

 Oman is a country in Southwest Asia on the coast of the Arabian Sea, Gulf of Oman, and the Persian Gulf. Neighboring countries include Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, and Yemen. Oman has a strategic location on the Arabian Peninsula adjacent to the Strait of Hormuz, a vital transit point for crude oil. The geography of Oman is mountainous and arid. The government system is a monarchy; the chief of state and head of government is the sultan and prime minister. Oman is a member of the League of Arab States (Arab League) and the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC).

Population Population Growth Rate Age Dependency Ratio Urban Population Infant Mortality Rate Life Expectancy at Birth
4,520,471 (2021)
-0.506 annual % (2021)
41.966 % of working-age population (2021)
87.044 % of total (2021)
9.5 per 1,000 live births (2020)
74.757 years (2020)

Business Partners

Exporters

Select your indicators

Value imported in 2020 (USD thousand)

Share in Oman’s imports (%)

Total

28,403,649

100

United Arab Emirates

9,688,488

34.1

China

3,091,184

10.9

India

2,308,351

8.1

Japan

1,291,234

4.5

United States of America

1,129,864

4

Saudi Arabia

839,949

3

Germany

838,780

3

Qatar

747,622

2.6

Brazil

737,319

2.6

Korea, Republic of

610,735

2.2

Importers

Select your indicators

Value exported in 2020 (USD thousand)

Share in Oman’s exports (%)

Total

34,790,058

100

China

15,551,773

44.7

India

3,045,148

8.8

Korea, Republic of

2,176,821

6.3

United Arab Emirates

1,835,145

5.3

Saudi Arabia

1,651,689

4.7

Japan

1,467,607

4.2

United States of America

886,675

2.5

Taipei, Chinese

728,842

2.1

South Africa

662,745

1.9

Malaysia

647,010

1.9

Culture

 Oman is a welcoming, but conservative, country. Modest dress is appreciated, such as loose clothing covering arms and legs. The main religion in the country is Islam, specifically the branch of Islam known as Ibadism. Religion is very important in Oman and plays a large part in the daily life of most citizens.

If you are invited to visit on Omani household, it is recommended to bring a small, non-alcoholic gift, and to take off your shoes before entering. Conversations are likely to include questions about your personal life, including marital status, your age, religion, and your thoughts about Oman. These questions come from a genuine interest in getting to know you and are not meant to cause offence.

Natural Resources

 Oman has limited water resources. The country is dependent on groundwater and its limited rainfall (of around 100 millimeters annually) for about 65 percent of its water supply. The remaining 35 percent comes from desalinated seawater.

While grazing lands, land for agriculture, and wildlife have always provided the mainstay for food production, the marine environment and fishing were the most important resources in the coastal parts of the country.

Today, however, oil and gas, which have been exploited since the 1960s, are the most important resources of national income. Among the member states of the Gulf Cooperation Council Oman has one of the smallest proven oil reserves: 5,500 million barrels. More important are its gas reserves: 30,000 billion cubic feet.

Other resources include copper, chromite, magnesium, gold, coal, industrial ores and raw materials for building materials such as sand, silica, marble, and limestone.

The mining and quarrying sector in Kenya accounts for less than 1 percent of gross domestic product, with the majority being contributed by the soda ash operation at Lake Magadi in south-central Kenya. In 2010, Kenya’s share of the world’s soda ash production amounted to 4%. Cement, Fluorspar, and Petroleum refining were the other mining and mineral processing activities undertaken by the mining sector.

Economic Index

 GDP

64,648,393.04

 

GDP, PPP

246,068,248.30

 

GDP per capita, PPP

28,448.86

GDP per capita

12,659.7

 

Gini index 2020

30.75

 

 Inflation, consumer prices

-0.9

Social Media Stats in Oman

Facebook = 38.17%

Instagram = 28.48%

YouTube = 16.34%

Twitter = 8.92%

Pinterest = 7.42%

LinkedIn = 0.32%

Browser Market Share in Oman

Chrome = 72.7%

Safari = 16.22%

Samsung Internet = 3.58%

Edge = 3.31%

UC Browser = 1.73%

Opera = 1.33%

Standards

 The Directorate General of Specifications and Metrology (DGSM) at the MOCIIP is responsible for standardization, metrology, testing, quality control and quality assurance, conformity assessment and certification, and accreditation activities. Oman is harmonizing its technical regulations and standards at the GCC level and develops technical regulations and standards at the national level only if there is a pressing need, according to authorities.

Trade Agreements

 Under the FTA, Oman provides immediate duty-free access on virtually all industrial and consumer products in its tariff schedule, and it phased out tariffs on the remaining handful of products in 2019. The United States provides immediate duty-free access for 100 percent of Oman’s current exports of agricultural products to the United States. Oman is also a member of the Gulf Cooperation Council, which allows for duty-free trade between its members and with other countries with which it has a free trade agreement.

Import Tariffs

 Oman’s tariff schedule imposes duties, generally not exceeding 10 percent, on all foreign, non-American/GCC goods imports. Virtually all U.S.-origin products enjoy duty-free access, and Oman has phased out nearly all tariffs on the remaining handful of products. Tariff preference levels on certain textile and apparel products expired at the end of 2018.

Despite the entry into force of the U.S.-Oman Free Trade Agreement (FTA) in 2009, U.S. firms report some difficulty importing some goods duty-free. The Royal Oman Police Directorate General of Customs (ROP Customs) still occasionally collects customs duties on some bonded items transshipped to Oman by road via the UAE. Some American companies have reported that goods not individually engraved as “Made in the USA” do not receive the preferential treatment to which they are entitled under the FTA. In addition, some importers have reported that ROP Customs has denied duty-free entry to imports meeting the 35-percent American origin requirement for duty-free access, due to the presence of a few non-American parts in the same container. This practice is also in violation of the FTA. The FTA does not require the legalization or “casualization” of trading documents. The FTA also does not require shipments to originate in U.S. ports or airports, and it allows for transshipment by land.

The Oman Tax Authority imposes an excise tax on alcoholic beverages, carbonated drinks, energy drinks, pork and pork products and tobacco and tobacco products, ranging from 50 percent to 100 percent. Oman implements a 5-percent value-added tax (VAT) on most goods and services, consistent with the GCC Unified Agreement.

Companies can request advance rulings based on tariff classification, customs valuation, or rules of origin through ROP Customs.

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Medical Devices in Kenya

Medical Devices in Kenya

In Kenya, medical equipment must meet the following certification and standard requirements to ensure safety and quality in healthcare delivery.

1. Kenya Bureau of Standards (KEBS) Certification:
 The KEBS is the national standards body of Kenya and is responsible for developing and implementing standards for various products, including medical equipment. The KEBS certification is mandatory for certain medical equipment, such as diagnostic imaging equipment, to ensure their safety and compliance with the relevant Kenyan standards.

2. Pharmacy and Poisons Board (PPB) Approval:
 The PPB is responsible for regulating the importation, exportation, manufacture, and sale of drugs, food, cosmetics, and medical devices in Kenya. Its approval is mandatory for all medical equipment in Kenya, including imported and locally manufactured equipment.

3. International Standards:
 The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) and the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) develop international standards for various medical equipment. These standards ensure that the equipment is safe, reliable, and of good quality.

4. CE Marking:
 The CE Marking is a certification mark that indicates compliance with health, safety, and environmental protection standards for products sold within the European Economic Area (EEA). Medical equipment with the CE Marking is considered to comply with the relevant European standards and can be marketed in Kenya.

Registration Process:

  • ● Fill up the application form and submit the filled-up required document together with all required documents.
    ● Pay the appropriate fees as advised by the board’s officers.
    ● Once your application is approved you will receive a Certificate evidencing the registration of the medical device.
    ● An applicant for a manufacturer outside Kenya must file evidence of Power of Attorney from the manufacturer which authorizes him to speak for his principal on all matters relating to the application. The application process usually takes a period of three months.
  • Classification:
     Class A,B,C,D

Documents Required:
● Common Submission Dossier Template (CSDT)
● Letter of Authorization for Authorized Representative
● Device Labelling
● Pre-verification certificate for Notified Body
● IFU, Patient information leaflet, promotional material
● Certificate of Analysis
● Information on sterilization methods and validation standard
● Regulatory Approval from the country of origin
● QMS certificate
Additional for Class B, C and D
● Essential Principles Checklist
● Design verification and validation
● Risk Analysis
● Clinical Evidence

Standards
 ISO 13485, ISO 14971, and IEC 60601.

Registration Timeline:
 Around 9-12 months

License Validity:
 5 years

Import Value
Key information about Kenya Imports: Medicinal and Pharmaceutical Product
● Kenya Imports: Medicinal and Pharmaceutical Product was reported at 195,063.899 USD th in Dec 2021
● This records an increase from the previous number of 127,959.759 USD th for Dec 2020
● Kenya Imports: Medicinal and Pharmaceutical Product data is updated yearly, averaging 57,329.693 USD th from Dec 1995 to 2021, with 27 observations
● The data reached an all-time high of 195,063.899 USD th in 2021 and a record low of 16,843.881 USD th in 2000
● Kenya Imports: Medicinal and Pharmaceutical Product data remains active status in CEIC and is reported by United Nations Conference on Trade and Development
● The data is categorized under World Trend Plus’s Association: Pharmaceutical and Biotechnology Sector – Table RT.UNCTAD.MPP:
Medicinal and Pharmaceutical Product: Imports Value by Individual Economies and Territories

Top Importers
Prodigy Pharmaceuticals Limited
Philips East Africa Limited
Coptic hospital
AllMed Medical Supplies Limited
SurgiPharm Limited

Competitors
1. Megascope Healthcare Ltd
 Megascope Healthcare is widely recognised as the most reliable supplier of quality medical equipment in Kenya, offering a wide selection of quality and affordable medical equipment.
Contact: +254 722 299 097
Email: info@megascopekenya.com

2. Phoenix Equipment Ltd
 The company is registered in Kenya as a supplier of medical equipment and solutions for the hospital field and homecare use with efficient distribution channels to supply efficiently across Eastern Africa.
Location: Visions Plaza, Mombasa Road, Nairobi
Contact: 0728 853 905
Email: info@phoenixequipltd.com

3. Toda Medical Supplies
 Toda Ltd is regionally recognised as distributors of medical equipment and devices for Intervention radiology, ENT, neurosurgery, cardiovascular, urology and general surgery.
Contacts: +254 723 086 338, +254 20 528 9177
Email: info@todamedicalsupplies.co.ke

4. Barfield Hospital Supplies Ltd
 It supplies medical equipment & surgical instruments. It also manufactures custom-designed and standard hospital furniture.
Contact: +254 020 248 5585/ 020 2699104
Email: info@barfieldltd.com

5. Nairobi X-ray supplies Ltd
 It is mainly involved in radiological, surgical, dialysis, hearing implants and endoscopy supplies of quality equipment from Japan.
Contact: +254 733 512 802, +254 703 700 766
Email: info@nxsltd.com

6. Medmax Ltd
 Medmax is a leading supplier of diagnostic products, hospital furniture, walking aids and laboratory equipment.
Location: Industrial Area, Nairobi
Contact: +254 733 589 509/ +254 705 071 699

7. Angelica Medical Supplies Ltd
Location: 1st floor, Regent Court, Hurlingham, Nairobi
Contact: +254 020 265 4721
Email: info@angelicamedical.com

8. Bioscope Laboratory Supplies Ltd
 The company supplies laboratory chemicals, consumables and equipment across the East African region.
Location: Nabro Towers, Ngara, Nairobi
Contact: 0720 537 146
Email: sales@bioscope.co.ke

9. Promech Enterprise Limited
Location: Green House Building, Along Ngong Road
Contacts: +254 723 540 960
Email: info@promechkenya.com

10. Omsai Distributors Limited
 The company supplies medical devices and equipment to private, public and non-governmental institutions in Kenya. It supplies equipment such as hospital beds, pediatric beds, medical carts, delivery beds and blood transfusion sets.
Contacts: +254 784 705 606, +254 705 705 606

Picture1

Kenya

Picture1

Kenya

 Kenya is a country in Eastern Africa bordering the Indian Ocean and Lake Victoria. Neighboring countries include Ethiopia, Somalia, South Sudan, Tanzania, and Uganda. Unique Kenyan physiography, from highlands to glaciers, supports abundant and varied wildlife of scientific and economic value. The government system is a republic; the chief of state and head of government is the president. Kenya has a mixed economic system which includes a variety of private freedom, combined with centralized economic planning and government regulation. Kenya is a member of the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA) and the East African Community (EAC).

Population Population Growth Rate Age Dependency Ratio Urban Population Infant Mortality Rate Life Expectancy at Birth
18,754,440 (2020)
1.292 annual % (2020)
58.849 % of working-age population (2020)
57.671 % of total (2020)
9.3 per 1,000 live births (2019)
73.18 years (2019)

Business Partners

Importers

Select your indicators

Value exported in 2022 (USD thousand)

Trade balance 2022 (USD thousand)

Share in Kenya’s exports (%)

World

7,390,793

-13,736,958

100

Uganda

822,915

487,398

11.1

United States of America

679,333

-133,469

9.2

Netherlands

591,234

318,770

8

Pakistan

544,272

319,873

7.4

Tanzania, United Republic of

484,305

32,022

6.6

United Kingdom

378,289

83,126

5.1

United Arab Emirates

373,679

-3,084,590

5.1

Rwanda

341,640

311,455

4.6

China

233,838

-3,610,857

3.2

Egypt

227,178

-145,979

3.1

 

Exporters

Select your indicators

Value imported in 2022 (USD thousand)

Trade balance 2022 (USD thousand)

Share in Kenya’s imports (%)

World

21,127,751

-13,736,958

100

China

3,844,695

-3,610,857

18.2

United Arab Emirates

3,458,269

-3,084,590

16.4

India

2,123,477

-2,055,097

10.1

Saudi Arabia

1,035,879

-930,707

4.9

Malaysia

1,023,761

-999,426

4.8

Japan

829,578

-778,762

3.9

United States of America

812,802

-133,469

3.8

South Africa

518,627

-460,469

2.5

Tanzania, United Republic of

452,283

32,022

2.1

Korea, Republic of

426,648

-374,600

2

Culture

Kenyans culture is very communal in nature. Kenyans share everything from clothes, food, and even space! At home, personal items are often shared with every member of the family. In most families, they don’t understand the concept of private time and it’s uncommon to stay alone in one’s room for long periods of time except to sleep.

Kenyan culture is a way of life that blends tradition with modernity. Traditionally, most Kenyans will not engage in direct communication, but instead, use non-explicit techniques in passing over their intended message. However, the style of communication depends directly on the level of intimacy between each person.

Kenyans people are quite sociable and friendly. When they meet, they hug, shake hands, and stand close to each other. It’s not easy to get privacy since people are always talking and chatting. It is considered rude to stand away from others. Disagreement with others is seen as a sign of disrespect, especially with elders. It is considered ill-mannered to shout or speak with a high tone.

Taboos

Losing ones temper and shouting is considered highly rude. Most disputes are resolved by using humor, or they might simmer under the surface for long periods without confrontation.  It’s best to remain polite and smiling, even if frustrated.

Kenyans tend to dress in a conservative manner with an emphasis on appearing smart and well dressed as a matter of pride. To look sloppy or wear revealing or damaged clothes would mean that a foreigner would instantly lose a degree of respect amongst Kenyans.

Economic Index

 GDP

101,013,726.53

 

GDP, PPP

246,068,248.30

 

GDP per capita, PPP

4,577.9

GDP per capita

1,878.6

 

Gini index

40.8

 

 Inflation, consumer prices

5.4

Social Media Stats in Kenya

Facebook = 36.73%

YouTube = 21.96%

Twitter = 20.03%

Instagram = 10.08%

Pinterest = 9.09%

LinkedIn = 0.96%

Browser Market Share in Kenya

Chrome = 60.96%

Opera = 31.13%

Safari = 2.55%

Firefox = 1.87%

Edge = 1.63%

Samsung Internet = 1.18%

Natural Resources

Mineral resources in Kenya include gold, iron ore, talc, soda ash, some rare earth minerals, and gemstones. Gold is mostly restricted to the westernmost part of the country, while areas around Mombasa host limestone, niobium, iron ore, gemstone, and self.

The mining and quarrying sector in Kenya accounts for less than 1 percent of gross domestic product, with the majority being contributed by the soda ash operation at Lake Magadi in south-central Kenya. In 2010, Kenya’s share of the world’s soda ash production amounted to 4%. Cement, Fluorspar, and Petroleum refining were the other mining and mineral processing activities undertaken by the mining sector.

Standards

A Kenyan standard is a document established by consensus and approved by KEBS that provides for common and repeated use, rules, guidelines, or characteristics for products and services, as well as related processes or production methods, aimed at the achievement of the opimum degree of order in a given context.

Kenya applies a comparative ‘standard’ to all products of services. Kenya standards are classified into six categories: 
1. Glossaries or Definitions of terminology
2. Dimensional Standards
3. Performance Standards
4. Standards Methods of Test
5. Codes of Practice
6. Measurement Standards
These standards are developed by technical committees whose membership includes representatives of various interest groups such as producers, consumers, technologist, research organizations, and testing organizations, in both the privet and public sectors.

Some of the departments include the Food and Agriculture Department which is responsible for the development of standards covering food technologies, food safety, fertilizers, agricultural produce, livestock products, poultry products, etc.

The Chemical Department is responsible for the development of standards covering soaps, detergents, paints, pesticides, stationery, and related equipment and all products based on chemical formulations. Others include the services standards department, and the engineering department.

Service Standards Department is responsible for the development of standards in the service industry such as tourism, hotels, transport, education, social activities, etc. These standards are aimed at addressing the evolving needs in the service sector and represent a growth area.

Engineering Department is responsible for the development of standards in covering civil engineering, electro-technology, information technology, renewable energy, textile engineering and mechanical engineering. Standards Information and Resource Section is responsible for the maintenance and availability of standards information, library, WTO NEP, and sales of standards.

Trade Agreements

Multilateral Trade System (MTS):
The World Trade Organization (WTO) is the primary international organization dealing with the global rules of trade between nations. Kenya has been a member of the WTO since its inception in January 1995. The WTO’s 10th Ministerial Conference was held in Nairobi, Kenya in December 2015. The Conference culminated in the adoption of the “Nairobi Package”, a series of six ministerial decisions on agriculture, cotton, and issues related to least-developed countries (LDCs). The latest EAC Trade Policy Review by WTO was scheduled for March 2019.

African Continental Free Trade Area (ACFTA):
Kenya was among nearly 50 African nations signed a deal to create the ACFTA in Kigali, Rwanda, on March 21, 2-18, marking a historic milestone in the economic integration of the continent. The formation of a free trade area spanning Africa creates a single market of 1.2bn people with a combined gross domestic product of more than $2 trillion (UNCTAD).

U.S – EAC Trade and Investment Framework Agreement (TIFA):
The United States signed Trade and Investment Framework Agreements (TIFA) with the East African Community (EAC) in 2008, and with the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA) at https://ustr.gov/countries-regions/africa/regional-economic-communities-rec/common-market-eastern-and-southern-africa-comesa in 2021. Kenya is a member of both regional organizations. The Office of the U.S.

Regional Markets:
Kenya is a member of the East African Community (EAC) with a population of approximately 177 million across the countries of Burundi, Kenya, Rwanda, South Sudan and Tanzania.

ACP/Cotonou Partnership Agreement:
Exports from Kenya entering the European Union are entitled to duty reductions and freedom from all quota restrictions. Trade preferences include duty-free entry of all industrial products as well as a wide range of agricultural products including beef, fish, dairy products, cereals, fresh and processed fruits, and vegetables.

African Growth and Opportunity Act (AGOA):
Kenya qualifies for duty free access until 2025 to the U.S. market under the African Growth and Opportunity Act. Some of Kenya’s major products that qualify for export under AGOA include textiles, apparels, and handicrafts.

Generalized System of Preferences (GSP):
Under the Generalized System of Preferences, a wide range of Kenya’s manufactured products are entitled to preferential duty treatment in the Australia, Austria, Canada, Finland, Japan, New Zealand, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland, other European countries, and the United States. In addition, no quantitative restrictions are applicable to Kenyan exports on any of the 3,000-plus items currently eligible for GSP treatment. Additional information is available at United Nations Conference on Trade and Development.

Bilateral Trade Agreement:
Kenya has signed bilateral trade agreements with several countries: Argentina, Bangladesh, Bulgaria, China, Comoros, Congo (DRC), Djibouti, Egypt, Hungary, India, Iraq, Lesotho, Liberia, Netherlands, Nigeria, Pakistan, Poland, Romania, Russia, Rwanda, Somalia, South Korea, Swaziland, Tanzania, Thailand, Zambia, and Zimbabwe.

U.S – Kenya Free Trade Agreement:
In July 2020, the United States and Kenya entered into FTA negotiations to seek a high standard agreement that will also complement regional integration efforts within the EAC and ACFTA. Negotiations were paused at the end of 2020, pending a review of the status of negotiations by the incoming USTR leadership. In addition to the launch of trade negotiations, the United States and Kenya agreed on a Strategic Cooperation Framework to provide technical assistance and trade capacity building in Kenya with the aim of maximizing Kenya’s utilization of the AGOA trade benefits for the remaining years of the preference program, which is scheduled to expire in 2025.

U.S. – Kenya Commercial Memorandum of Understanding (MoU):
In parallel to FTA negotiations, the United States and Kenya intend to intensify efforts to bolster commercial cooperation under the bilateral commercial Memorandum of Understanding signed in June 2018, and to work together to identify and prioritize trade and investment opportunities in strategic sectors including energy, health, digital economy, infrastructure, manufacturing, and agriculture.

Import Tariffs

Kenya applies tariffs based on the international harmonized system (HS) of product classification and applies duties and tariffs of the EAC Common External Tariff. Customs duties can be levied at rates between 0% and 100%, with an average of 25%. However, sensitive items attract duty higher than 25% (the sensitive items are listed in the schedule 2 of the EAC Common external tariff). Excise duties de[end on whether the imported item it excisable or not. The rates are prescribed under the Excise Duty Act 2015. Imports into Kenya are subject to a standard VAT rate of 16%, levied on the sum of the CIF value, duty, and other applicable taxes. An import declaration fee of 3.5% and railway development levy of 2%.