Methanol, also known as methyl alcohol, amongst other names, is a chemical and the simplest alcohol, with the formula CH3OH, (often abbreviated MeOH). It is a light, volatile, colourless, flammable liquid.
– Methanol consists of a methyl group linked to a polar hydroxyl group. With more than 20 million tons produced annually.
– It is used as a precursor to other commodity chemicals, including formaldehyde, acetic acid, methyl tert-butyl ether, methyl benzoate, anisole, peroxyacids, as well as a host of more specialised chemicals.
– Methanol is used as fuel and as a solvent and as an antifreeze in pipelines and windshield washer fluid.
Ammonia is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen with the formula NH3. Ammonia is a stable binary hydride. Ammonia is a colourless gas with a characteristically pungent smell. It is lighter than air, its density being 0.589 times that of air. It is easily liquefied due to the strong hydrogen bonding between molecules.
– Liquid ammonia is the best-known and most widely studied nonaqueous ionising solvent.
– Ammonia is directly or indirectly the precursor to nitrogen-containing compounds like Nitric acid. Nitric acid is used for the production of fertilizers, explosives, and many organonitrogen compounds. Ammonia is also used to make the following compounds.
– Hydrazine, Hydrogen cyanide, Hydroxylamine and ammonium carbonate, Phenol, Urea, Amino acids. Acrylonitrile. Ammonia can also be used to make compounds in reactions which are not specifically named. Examples of such compounds include: ammonium perchlorate, ammonium nitrate, formamide, dinitrogen tetroxide, alprazolam, ethanolamine, ethyl carbamate, hexamethylenetetramine, and ammonium bicarbonate.
Ethylene glycol (IUPAC name: ethane-1,2-diol) is an organic compound with the formula (CH2OH)2. It is mainly used for two purposes, as a raw material in the manufacture of polyester fibers and for antifreeze formulations. It is an odorless, colorless, sweet-tasting, toxic, viscous liquid.
Coolant and heat-transfer agent, Dehydrating agent, Precursor to polymers like polyester fibers, Polyethylene terephthalate.
Urea, also known as carbamide, is an organic compound with chemical formula CO(NH2)2. This amide has two –NH2 groups joined by a carbonyl (C=O) functional group.
– More than 90% of world industrial production of urea is destined for use as a nitrogen-release fertilizer. Urea has the highest nitrogen content of all solid nitrogenous fertilizers in common use. Therefore, it has a low transportation cost per unit of nitrogen nutrient. The most common impurity of synthetic urea is biuret, which impairs plant growth.