Kazakhstan is a landlocked, transcontinental country located in Central Asia and Eastern Europe. It is bordered by China, Kyrgyzstan, Russia, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan. The terrain extends west to east from the Caspian Sea to the Altay Mountains and north to south from the plains of Western Siberia to the deserts of Central Asia. The government system is a republic with the authoritarian presidential rule and little power outside the executive branch. The chief of state is the president, and the head of government is the prime minister. Kazakhstan has a mixed economic system which includes a variety of private freedom, combined with centralized economic planning and government regulation. Kazakhstan is a member of the Eurasian Economic Union (EAEU).
– Capital City: Astana (+6 GMT)
– Currency: Tenge (KZT)
– Languages: Kazakh (official, Qazaq) 83.1% (understand spoken language) and trilingual (Kazakh, Russian, English) 22.3% (2017 est.); Russian (official, used in everyday business, designated the “language of interethnic communication”) 94.4% (understand spoken language) (2009 est.)
– Religions: Muslim 70.2%, Christian 26.2% (mainly Russian Orthodox), other 0.2%, atheist 2.8%, unspecified 0.5% (2009 est.)
|Population||Population Growth Rate||Age Dependency Ratio||Urban Population||Infant Mortality Rate||Life Expectancy at Birth|
1.292 annual % (2020)
58.849 % of working-age population (2020)
57.671 % of total (2020)
9.3 per 1,000 live births (2019)
73.18 years (2019)
The Kazakh people are rich in traditions. From birth through old age and death, every step of their lives has historically been marked with celebration. Even their funeral ceremonies have their own special symbolism.
Unfortunately, many rich and interesting traditions and customs of the Kazakh people have been forgotten throughout the past century. Real sovereignty is just now being reestablished in Kazakhstan due to the process of democratization. These abandoned traditions are just now being rediscovered by the Kazakh people. These traditions include being respectful to old people; being patriotic to the motherland; being honest; and learning to love mankind.
– Putting your thumb in between your middle and index finger while making a fist is an obscene gesture.
– Hooking two fingers together is an obscene gesture as well.
– An indirect style of communication tends to be more effective than being overly direct, although Soviet influenced bluntness still remains strong—your weight and level of attractiveness tend to be fair game for comments.
– Good topics of conversation when establishing a personal relationship include art, food, drink, and sports. Avoid politics, religion, and ethnicity if possible.
– Kazakh suggestions and imperatives don’t translate well, and you may find someone giving you dog commands (Sit! Speak! Eat!) or mistake the difference between a command and a suggestion. It’s usually best to ask follow-up questions when you think someone might want you to do something.
– For Men: Conservative suits or tie and jacket in the cities and when dealing with government officials.
– For Women: Stylish, yet somewhat conservative business suits or dresses and blouses are appropriate.
Shoes are very important. Kazakh men tend to wear pointy, dandy-ish shoes. Women wear heels, often stilettos. Whatever shoes you wear, it is best to make sure they’re clean and polished.
Kazakhstan experiences an extreme continental climate, with long, hot summers and cold winters. Winter in the north of the country is long and cold – in some years the temperatures reached – 52°C (Nur-Sultan), but there are also thaws up to 5°C. The shortest season in the north is spring, which lasts 1.5 months, while summer lasts 3 months and winter extends from October to April. Snow primarily falls in November but can continue through April. Due to its great distance from the ocean, Kazakhstan has a highly continental climate and large intraday and annual fluctuations in temperature. This means that temperatures in the winter months (December to February) are extremely cold, with national averages between -9°C and -12°C, whereas summers are hot, with average temperatures of 22°C to 23°C in June, July and August. Precipitation is low throughout the year, with average monthly levels of between 14 millimeters (mm) and 30 mm, although flooding can occur during spring due to increased rain and the thawing of winter snow.
Kazakhstan is very rich in mineral resources. Oil, coal, various ore and non-metallic deposits are the priceless treasure of the republic. Some of these mineral resources make Kazakhstan famous in the world. They include chrome iron ore deposits, polymetallic deposits, copper, tungsten, molybdenum and uranium ores.
GDP (current US$) – Kazakhstan
GDP, PPP (current international $) – Kazakhstan
GDP per capita, PPP (current international $) – Kazakhstan
GDP per capita (current US$) – Kazakhstan
Gini index – Kazakhstan
Inflation, consumer prices (annual %) – Kazakhstan
Internet use in Kazakhstan in 2022
There were 16.41 million internet users in Kazakhstan in January 2022.
Kazakhstan’s internet penetration rate stood at 85.9 percent of the total population at the start of 2022.
YouTube = 26.29%
Facebook = 19.38%
Pinterest = 17.29%
Instagram = 12.53%
Twitter = 11.57%
VKontakte = 8.64%
Chrome = 65.9%
Safari = 15.55%
Yandex Browser = 6.05%
Opera = 3.93%
Firefox = 2.63%
Samsung Internet = 2.59%
Certification and/or conformity assessment procedures are part of the national system of technical regulation. To bring Kazakhstan standards more in line with international standards, in 2007 Kazakhstan adopted several laws and amendments to the existing Law on Technical Regulations including such laws as Safety of Chemical Products, Safety of Food Products, Safety of Toys, and Safety of Equipment and Machinery. The national file of standards now includes 73,000 rules and norms, including 35,347 representing international standards (International Organization for Standardization, European Standards, International Electrotechnical Commission, etc.) and 2,246 U.S. standards (American National Standards Institute). These standards are applied across all economic sectors.
Under current regulations, safety standards acquire the status of normative documents, mandatory for consideration, while quality standards will gradually become voluntary. The functions of governmental bodies will be limited to dealing with safety control issues. Technical regulations will acquire the status of laws and will be intended to ensure the safety of life and health of consumers. Other standards relating to quality of goods will be given a voluntary status, and manufacturers will no longer be forced to follow outdated requirements dictating a shape, or color of goods as it was under previous legislation.
As part of its WTO accession in 2015, Kazakhstan agreed to lower 3,512 tariff rates gradually, to an average of 6.1 percent in 2020. Tariffs on agricultural products will see the largest reduction, from 16.7 percent to an average of 7.6%. In January 2016, Kazakhstan began applying lower tariff rates to certain food products, automobiles, airplanes, railway wagons, lumber, alcoholic beverages, pharmaceuticals, freezers, and jewelry.
Kazakhstan became a WTO member on November 30, 2015. In addition, Kazakhstan officially entered a Customs Union with Russia and Belarus on July 1, 2010, eventually becoming a founding member of the Eurasian Economic Union (EAEU), which was created on May 29, 2014, between Kazakhstan, Belarus, and Russia. (The Kyrgyz Republic and Armenia joined in 2015.) Since that time, Kazakhstan’s trade policy has been heavily influenced by EAEU regulations. For example, while Kazakhstan asserts that EAEU agreements comply with WTO standards, since joining the Customs Union, Kazakhstan has doubled its average import tariff and introduced annual tariff-rate quotas (TRQs) on poultry and beef.